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what can we do to solve drug resistance

what can we do to solve drug resistance?

Each antibiotic (drug) works by targeting a certain location in the bacterium cells. Some attack cell wall, and these include (Beta-lactams, penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, glycopeptides, vancomycin, and bacitracin). Others attack the plasma membrane of the bacterium (polymyxins and polymyxins B, colistin, lipopeptide, and daptomycin). Some attack DNA and RNA synthesis and others target 30s ribosomes (such as aminoglycosides and tetracycline) or 50s ones (macrolides, lincosamides, chloramphenicol, and oxazolidinones). Finally, there are the ones that target the metabolic pathways of the bacterium (Folic acid synthesis, sulfonamides, sulfones, trimethoprim, mycolic acid synthesis,and isoniazid). 

metabolic pathways of the bacterium Resistance mechanisms

 

As bacteria evolves, it is becoming resistant to more and more anti-microbial drugs, which is becoming a crisis nowadays. Resistance to certain drugs happen sometimes by stopping the antibiotic from reaching its target at a high enough concentration. This can happen in many ways. One of them can be that the bacterium cell produce a pump that pumps the drug out of it. Also, the cell membrane of the bacterium can reduce its permeability preventing the drug from entering the cell. The cell can also destroy the antibiotic drug by inactivating it. Bacteria can produce certain enzymes that add some other chemical groups to the antibiotic preventing it from linking to its target, which is called antibiotic modification. 

There are some other ways that bacteria can become resistant to drugs by modifying of bypassing the target (first, by changing the structure or composition of the target in the bacterium resulting in mutations in DNA. Second, producing some alternative proteins that can be used instead of the ones being inhibited by the antibiotic drug. And finally, reprograming the target by changing its structure so the antibiotic can’t attack this type of structure). 

As a result of this, are we going to reach a point were not any antibiotics are effective anymore? and at this point would there be any alternative treatments other than antibiotics that should be more effective?

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