Undertake physiological measurements
1.1 We should always check equipment which we are going to use if it is safe and working properly, we should wear PPE every time we are undertaking any task, ensure that we are trained to do the task, we should keep the working place safe and clean. When we are about to take measurement from an person we need to make sure that the person know exactly what we are going to do and asking permission for the task we are about to do. Recording the task in the chart and keep it confidential to protect personal information during the course of our work.
2.1 To have an blood pressure maintenance we should maintain a healthy lifestyle, doing some exercises daily and eating healthier, preventing having high blood pressure known as hypertension, is 140/90 or more, who chances increase as you get older, overweight, having a relative with high blood pressure, non-eating healthy, which puts us at risk of a heart attack or stroke. The low blood pressure known as hypotension, is 100/60 or less, can drop from a post operation, not drinking enough, quick stand can make you dizzy. The normal limits of blood pressure is between 100/60 to 140/90. Systolic blood pressure is when an force of heart pumping causing strain and diastolic blood pressure is when your heart at rest ( relax ).
2.2 Body temperature is normally 37°C no matter what the temperature of the environment or the activity level of the individual. The hypothalamus is the temperature-regulating centre of the brain. It contains receptors which are sensitive to the temperature of the blood flowing through the brain, and the skin as a sensitive receptors that also send information about the temperature of the skin to hypothalamus. Pyrexia is a high body temperature 38ºc , fever, which is often a symptom of infection. If the body temperature rise up more then 38ºc is hyper-pyrexia,high fever, it may indicate a serious medical condition or lead to significant side effects of any extreme sun exposure or viral infection. To drop dow the body temperature we could use a fan; open the window and give paracetamol. Hypothermia is the opposite is when the body temperature is cold, low temperature 35ºc or below, elderly and babies they are more often at risk and should be treated as a medical emergency. As the temperature drops the person is likely to struggle to breathe and may lose consciousness.To rise up we could use extra blankets, warm cloths and a bair hugger.
2.3 The respiration rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. The rate is usually measured when a person is at rest and simply involves counting the number of breaths for one minute by counting how many times the chest rises and falls within a minute. Respiration rates may increase with fever, illness, and with other medical conditions. When checking respiration, it is important to also note whether a person has any difficulty breathing.The normal respiration rate for an adult is from 12 to 20 breaths per minute. With well individuals the respiration rate affects when doing exercises, drugs and alcohol, in ill individuals can affect if they have any chronic respiration conditions such as copd ( chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) can lead short of breath, asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, experience episodes of wheezing, breathlessness and chest tightness.
2.4 Normal pulse rates limits rate are 60 to 100. Fast heart rate ( tachycardia ) with our lifestyle, exercises, stress, anxiety and some disorders might make pulse rate rise such as breathing disorders, asthma. Slow heart rate ( bradycardia ) can be cause by age, the older you get, the more the electrical system of the heart functions abnormally; heart attack, heart infections. There is few places on the body where can measure a pulse rate such as wrist; neck; foot behind the ankles; inside of the arm above the elbow. Pulse oxymetry are required to check the oxygen around the body. All organs require oxygen for metabolism but the brain and heart are particularly sensitive to a lack of oxygen to prevent the consequences of desaturation, using pulse oximetry we can check the total amount of haemoglobin in the body. We can find pulse oxymetry on the fingertips, except on the thumb as our own pulsation or ear lobe and also on the toes.
2.5 Body Mass Index,BMI, is a measure of our weight compared to our height. BMI can help determine whether they are at a healthy weight, overweight or obese individuals are at increased risk for many diseases, such as: heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type-2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. With high BMI the individual would need to perform further assessments, start with a diet, physical activity, family history, change lifestyle.
2.6 Several factors can influence changes in physiological measurements such as illness, infections, stress, lifestyle, deterioration.
2.7 Monitoring physiological measurements it´s important to make sure the individual health status and also necessary after surgery, as patients in intensive care units require continuous monitoring, and sometimes have medications that requires physical measurements taken. These are measurements we take to ensure that they are functioning in the way they are supposed to. When we carry out physiological measurements, such as measuring temperature, pulse and respiration, we are monitoring for signs of abnormality. Then be able to draw conclusions about the health status of the individual and any treatments they may require (which may involve nursing care or medical attention).
3.4 They may need to be a certain position, reassurance, explanation, may need to have access to equipment.
3.5 It may be necessary to adjust an individuals clothing to get a better reading for blood pressure, also check if there is any hearing aid, if so remove and wait for few minutes to cold down,check if had any drinks before take the temperature,check the fingertips if they are cold, if has varnish before take the saturation.
4.6 When unable to obtain or read a physiological measurement, re-doing again on other part of the body where is possivel to do, in case can´t obtain or read for a second try, for a blood pressure try manually, for temperature offer hot drinks and warm up with extra clothing, for saturation give some oxygen.
5.1 To check and see if they are within normal parameters or do they need treating! For example a temperature they might give paracetamol! Recording it allows you to keep a track and follow a trend in their obs – if the Bp is low you can look and see if it normally is that low or is it a drop if so you can report it.
5.2 If a individual as hypertension can lead to stroke,heart attack, so we monitor blood pressure, if taking any antibiotics for an infection, we monitor for any changes on blood pressure, temperature, saturation, dehydration can lead to hypotension, so encourage to drink.
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