Heliports design and planning

Heliports design and planning

PAPER ASSIGNMENT (20% of course grade)
You are to select a topic of your choice related to airport planning, design, operation
security, or management. The assigned paper is intended to encourage analysis of the
course readings and related literature. The paper will be graded on the basis of both
information content and the quality of presentation. References should be cited in the
format adopted for the Transportation Research Record. In this style, references are listed
as they appear in the body of the paper, with citations in the text consisting of numbers in
parenthesis. The use of subheads to show subdivisions of the paper is encouraged.
The paper should be written in a style consistent with standard rules of composition. In
addition to grammatical soundness, characteristics of the well-written paper include a
logical structure and clear, easy-to-read sentences. Further, a well-written paper contains
an introduction providing an overview of the issues to be considered and ends with a
conclusion stating general findings.
Paper is due November 17 by 9:00 AM
U.S. Department Advisory of Transportation
Circular Federal Aviation
Administration
Subject: Heliport Design Date: 4/24/2012 AC No: 150/5390-2C
Initiated by: AAS-100 Change:
1. Purpose. This advisory circular (AC) provides standards for the design of heliports serving
helicopters with single rotors. Apply basic concepts to facilities serving helicopters with tandem (front
and rear) or dual (side by side) rotors, however many standards will not apply.
2. Cancellation. This AC cancels AC 150/5390-2B, Heliport Design, dated September 30, 2004.
3. Application. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommends the guidelines and
specifications in this AC for materials and methods used in the construction of heliports. In general, use
of this AC is not mandatory. However, use of this AC is mandatory for all projects funded with federal
grant monies through the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) and with revenue from the Passenger
Facility Charge (PFC). See Grant Assurance No. 34, Policies, Standards, and Specifications, and PFC
Assurance No. 9, Standards and Specifications. For information about grant assurances, see
http://www.faa.gov/airports/aip/grant_assurances/. The use of terms implying strict compliance applies
only to those projects. Other federal agencies, states, or other authorities having jurisdiction over the
construction of other heliports decide the extent to which these standards apply.
4. Principal changes.
a. Changed the term for the helicopter overall length (OL) to ‘D’ or ‘D-value.’
b. Added definitions for design loads for static and dynamic load-bearing areas (LBA).
c. Added guidance for pavement or structure larger than the touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF), but
less than the size of the final approach and take off (FATO).
d. Added guidance for turbulence effects.
e. Added guidance to provide adequate clearance between parking areas and taxi routes and within
parking areas.
f. Added guidance for minimum dimensions of curved approach/departure airspace.
g. Added guidance for Touchdown/Positioning Circle (TDPC) Marking.
h. Added guidance for Flight Path Alignment Guidance markings and lights.
i. Added an appendix providing guidance for Emergency Helicopter Landing Facility Requirements
(EHLF).
j. Added FATO to FATO separation distance for simultaneous operations.
k. Revised standards for size of “H” for general aviation heliports.
l. Added increased TLOF size when the FATO of a hospital heliport is not load bearing.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
n. Combined chapter 6, Non-Precision Instrument Operations and Chapter 7, Precision Approach
Operations into chapter 6, Instrument Operations. Reference FAA Order 8620 series.
o. To improve the legibility of the AC, changed the format to a single column and nested the tables
in the text.
p. Deleted requirements for load bearing capacity of a FATO at general aviation and hospital
heliports when the TLOF is marked.
q. Changed color of landing direction lights from yellow to green.
r. Added references to Engineering Brief 87, Heliport Lights for Visual Meteorological Conditions
(VMC).
5. Use of metrics. This AC includes both English and metric dimensions. The metric conversions may
not be exact equivalents, and the English dimensions govern.
6. Copies of this AC. This and other advisory circulars published by the Office of Airport Safety and
Standards are available on the FAA Office of Airports web page at www.faa.gov/airports.
MICHAEL J. O’DONNELL
Director of Airport Safety and Standards
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Paragraph Page
Chapter 1. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
101. Background. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
102. General. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
103. Facilities. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
104. Planning…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
105. Existing heliports………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
106. Location…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
107. AC organization. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
108. Explanation of terms. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….2
109. Selection of approach/departure paths……………………………………………………………………………6
110. Notification requirements…………………………………………………………………………………………….6
111. Hazards to air navigation……………………………………………………………………………………………..9
112. Federal assistance……………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
113. Environmental impact analyses…………………………………………………………………………………..10
114. Access to heliports by individuals with disabilities………………………………………………………..11
115. State role………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
116. Local role…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………11
117. Related referenced material………………………………………………………………………………………..11
Chapter 2. General Aviation Heliports………………………………………………………………………………………13
201. General. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13
202. Applicability…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
203. Prior permission required (PPR) facilities…………………………………………………………………….14
204. Access by individuals with disabilities…………………………………………………………………………14
205. Heliport site selection………………………………………………………………………………………………..14
206. Basic layout. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….14
207. Touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF)…………………………………………………………………………….15
208. Final approach and takeoff area (FATO). …………………………………………………………………….20
209. Safety area. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………22
210. VFR approach/departure paths……………………………………………………………………………………22
211. Heliport protection zone (HPZ)…………………………………………………………………………………..29
212. Wind cone. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29
213. Taxiways and taxi routes……………………………………………………………………………………………29
214. Helicopter parking…………………………………………………………………………………………………….35
215. Heliport markers and markings. ………………………………………………………………………………….44
216. Heliport lighting. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………53
217. Marking and lighting of difficult-to-see objects…………………………………………………………….58
218. Safety considerations…………………………………………………………………………………………………61
219. Visual glideslope indicators (VGSI). …………………………………………………………………………..64
220. Terminal facilities……………………………………………………………………………………………………..64
221. Zoning and compatible land use………………………………………………………………………………….64
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Chapter 3. Transport Heliports ………………………………………………………………………………………………..65
301. General. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..65
302. Applicability…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….65
303. Access by individuals with disabilities…………………………………………………………………………65
304. Heliport site selection………………………………………………………………………………………………..65
305. Basic layout. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….67
306. Touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF)…………………………………………………………………………….67
307. Final approach and takeoff area (FATO). …………………………………………………………………….71
308. Safety area. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………72
309. VFR approach/departure paths……………………………………………………………………………………73
310. Heliport protection zone (HPZ)…………………………………………………………………………………..76
311. Wind cone. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………76
312. Taxiways and taxi routes……………………………………………………………………………………………77
313. Helicopter parking…………………………………………………………………………………………………….77
314. Heliport markers and markings. ………………………………………………………………………………….88
315. Heliport lighting. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………93
316. Marking and lighting of difficult-to-see objects…………………………………………………………..100
317. Safety considerations……………………………………………………………………………………………….103
318. Visual glideslope indicators (VGSI). …………………………………………………………………………105
319. Terminal facilities……………………………………………………………………………………………………107
320. Zoning and compatible land use………………………………………………………………………………..107
Chapter 4. Hospital Heliports………………………………………………………………………………………………….109
401. General. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………109
402. Applicability…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..109
403. Access by individuals with disabilities……………………………………………………………………….109
404. Heliport site selection………………………………………………………………………………………………109
405. Basic layout. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..112
406. Touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF)…………………………………………………………………………..112
407. Final approach and takeoff area (FATO). …………………………………………………………………..114
408. Safety area. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….116
409. VFR approach/departure paths………………………………………………………………………………….118
410. Heliport protection zone (HPZ)…………………………………………………………………………………123
411. Wind cone. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….123
412. Taxiways and taxi routes………………………………………………………………………………………….126
413. Helicopter parking…………………………………………………………………………………………………..130
414. Heliport markers and markings. ………………………………………………………………………………..138
415. Heliport lighting. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….147
416. Marking and lighting of difficult-to-see objects…………………………………………………………..154
417. Safety considerations……………………………………………………………………………………………….157
418. Visual glideslope indicators (VGSI). …………………………………………………………………………159
419. Zoning and compatible land use………………………………………………………………………………..159
Chapter 5. Helicopter Facilities on Airports……………………………………………………………………………. 161
501. General. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………161
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502. Applicability…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..161
503. Touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF)………………………………………………………………………….161
504. Final approach and takeoff area (FATO). …………………………………………………………………..161
505. Safety area. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….161
506. VFR approach/departure paths………………………………………………………………………………….161
507. Heliport protection zone (HPZ)…………………………………………………………………………………162
508. Taxiways and taxi routes………………………………………………………………………………………….162
509. Helicopter parking…………………………………………………………………………………………………..162
510. Security………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….162
Chapter 6. Instrument Operations…………………………………………………………………………………………..165
601. General. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………165
602. Planning…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………165
603. Airspace…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………165
604. Final approach reference area (FARA). ……………………………………………………………………..165
605. Improved lighting system…………………………………………………………………………………………165
606. Obstacle evaluation surfaces. ……………………………………………………………………………………166
Chapter 7. Heliport Gradients and Pavement Design……………………………………………………………….169
701. General. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………169
702. TLOF gradients. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..169
703. FATO gradients………………………………………………………………………………………………………169
704. Safety area gradients. ………………………………………………………………………………………………169
705. Parking area gradients. …………………………………………………………………………………………….169
706. Taxiway and taxi route gradients. …………………………………………………………………………….. 169
707. Design loads. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….171
708. Pavement design and soil stabilization……………………………………………………………………….171
Appendix A. Emergency Helicopter Landing Facilities (EHLF)……………………………………………….. 175
Appendix B. Helicopter Data …………………………………………………………………………………………………..179
Appendix C. Dimensions for Marking Size and Weight Limitations………………………………………….185
Appendix D. Associated Publications and Resources ………………………………………………………………..187
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1–1. Form 7480-1, Notice of Landing Area Proposal …………………………………………………………….. 7
Figure 1–2. Example of a Heliport Layout Plan ……………………………………………………………………………….8
Figure 1–3. Example of a Heliport Location Map …………………………………………………………………………..10
Figure 1–4. Offsite Development Requiring Notice to the FAA……………………………………………………….12
Figure 2–1. Essential Features of a Heliport: General Aviation ………………………………………………………..13
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Figure 2–2. TLOF/FATO Safety Area Relationships and Minimum Dimensions: General Aviation……..16
Figure 2–3. Elongated FATO with Two Takeoff Positions: General Aviation ……………………………………17
Figure 2–4. Elevated Heliport: General Aviation ……………………………………………………………………………19
Figure 2–5. Additional FATO Length for Heliports at Higher Elevations: General Aviation ……………….21
Figure 2–6. Non-load-bearing FATO and Safety Area: General Aviation………………………………………….23
Figure 2–7. VFR Heliport Approach/Departure and Transitional Surfaces: General Aviation………………25
Figure 2–8. Curved Approach/Departure: General Aviation…………………………………………………………….26
Figure 2–9. VFR PPR Heliport Lateral Extension of the 8:1 Approach / Departure Surface: General
Aviation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………27
Figure 2–10. VFR PPR Heliport Lateral Extension of the Curved 8:1 Approach / Departure Surface:
General Aviation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….28
Figure 2–11. Flight Path Alignment Marking and Lights: General Aviation ………………………………………30
Figure 2–12. Heliport Protection Zone: General Aviation………………………………………………………………..31
Figure 2–13. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship – Paved Taxiway: General Aviation………………………….32
Figure 2–14. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship – Unpaved Taxiway with Raised Edge Markers: General
Aviation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………33
Figure 2–15. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship – Unpaved Taxiway with Flush Edge Markers: General
Aviation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………34
Figure 2–16. Parking Area Design – “Taxi-through” Parking Positions: General Aviation ………………….37
Figure 2–17. Parking Area Design – “Turn-around” Parking Positions: General Aviation …………………..38
Figure 2–18. Parking Area Design – “Back-out” Parking Positions: General Aviation………………………..39
Figure 2–19. “Turn-around” Parking Position Marking: General Aviation…………………………………………40
Figure 2–20. “Taxi-through” and “Back-out” Parking Position Marking: General Aviation…………………41
Figure 2–21. Parking Position Identification, Size, and Weight Limitations: General Aviation…………….43
Figure 2–22. Standard and Alternate TLOF Marking: General Aviation……………………………………………46
Figure 2–23. Standard Heliport Identification Symbol, TLOF Size and Weight Limitations: General
Aviation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………47
Figure 2–24. Extended Pavement / Structure Marking: General Aviation ………………………………………….48
Figure 2–25. Paved TLOF/Paved FATO – Paved TLOF/ Unpaved FATO – Marking: General Aviation 49
Figure 2–26. Unpaved TLOF/Unpaved FATO – Marking: General Aviation …………………………………….50
Figure 2–27. Marking a Closed Heliport: General Aviation……………………………………………………………..52
Figure 2–28. Elevated TLOF – Perimeter Lighting: General Aviation ………………………………………………53
Figure 2–29. TLOF/FATO Flush Perimeter Lighting: General Aviation……………………………………………55
Figure 2–30. TLOF Flush and FATO Raised Perimeter Lighting: General Aviation …………………………..56
Figure 2–31. Landing Direction Lights: General Aviation……………………………………………………………….57
Figure 2–32. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended: Straight Approach: General
Aviation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………59
Figure 2–33. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended: Curved Approach: General
Aviation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………60
Figure 2–34. Caution Sign: General Aviation ………………………………………………………………………………..62
Figure 2–35. Visual Glideslope Indicator Siting and Clearance Criteria: General Aviation………………….63
Figure 3–1. Typical Transport Heliport: Transport………………………………………………………………………….66
Figure 3–2. TLOF/FATO Safety Area Relationships and Minimum Dimensions: Transport………………..68
Figure 3–3. Elongated FATO with Two Takeoff Positions: Transport ………………………………………………69
Figure 3–4. Elevated Heliport: Transport ………………………………………………………………………………………70
Figure 3–5. Additional FATO Length for Heliports at Higher Elevations: Transport ………………………….71
Figure 3–6. Non-load-bearing Safety Area: Transport …………………………………………………………………….74
Figure 3–7. VFR Heliport Approach/Departure and Transitional Surfaces: Transport…………………………75
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Figure 3–8. Curved Approach/Departure: Transport……………………………………………………………………….78
Figure 3–25. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended: Straight Approach: Transport101
Figure 4–13. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship – Unpaved Taxiway with Raised Edge Markers: Hospital
Figure 3–9. Flight Path Alignment Marking and Lights: Transport …………………………………………………..79
Figure 3–10. Heliport Protection Zone: Transport…………………………………………………………………………..80
Figure 3–11. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship, Centerline and Edge Marking: Transport ………………….81
Figure 3–12. “Turn-around” Helicopter Parking Position Marking: Transport……………………………………82
Figure 3–13. “Taxi-through” Helicopter Parking Position Marking: Transport…………………………………..83
Figure 3–14. Parking Area Design – “Turn-around” Parking Positions: Transport ……………………………..85
Figure 3–15. Parking Area Design – “Taxi-through” Parking Position………………………………………………86
Figure 3–16. Parking Position Identification, Size and Weight Limitations: Transport………………………..87
Figure 3–17. Standard Heliport Identification Symbol, TLOF Size and Weight Limitations: Transport ..89
Figure 3–18. Paved TLOF/Paved FATO – Paved TLOF/Unpaved FATO – Marking: Transport ………….90
Figure 3–19. Marking a Closed Heliport: Transport………………………………………………………………………..93
Figure 3–20. TLOF and FATO Flush Perimeter Lighting: Transport ………………………………………………..94
Figure 3–21. FATO Raised and TLOF Flush Perimeter Lighting: Transport ……………………………………..95
Figure 3–22. Optional TLOF Lights: Transport ……………………………………………………………………………..97
Figure 3–23. Elevated FATO – Perimeter Lighting: Transport…………………………………………………………98
Figure 3–24. Landing Direction Lights: Transport………………………………………………………………………….99
Figure 3–26. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended: Curved Approach: Transport 102
Figure 3–27. Caution Sign: Transport………………………………………………………………………………………….104
Figure 3–28. Visual Glideslope Indicator Siting and Clearance Criteria: Transport…………………………..106
Figure 4–1. Essential Features of a Ground-level Hospital Heliport: Hospital ………………………………….110
Figure 4–2. TLOF/FATO Safety Area Relationships and Minimum Dimension: Hospital …………………111
Figure 4–3. Elongated FATO with Two Takeoff Positions: Hospital ………………………………………………113
Figure 4–4. Additional FATO Length for Heliports at Higher Elevation: Hospital……………………………115
Figure 4–5. Rooftop Hospital Heliport: Hospital…………………………………………………………………………..117
Figure 4–6. VFR Heliport Approach/Departure and Transitional Surfaces: Hospital…………………………119
Figure 4–7. Curved Approach/Departure: Hospital……………………………………………………………………….120
Figure 4–8. VFR Heliport Lateral Extension of the 8:1 Approach / Departure Surface: Hospital……….. 121
Figure 4–9. VFR Heliport Lateral Extension of the Curved 8:1 Approach/Departure Surface: Hospital 122
Figure 4–10. Flight Path Alignment Marking and Lights: Hospital …………………………………………………124
Figure 4–11. Heliport Protection Zone: Hospital…………………………………………………………………………..125
Figure 4–12. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship – Paved Taxiway: Hospital…………………………………….127
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………128
Figure 4–14. Taxiway/Route Relationship – Unpaved Taxiway with Flush Edge Markers: Hospital…..129
Figure 4–15. Parking Area Design – “Taxi-through” Parking Positions: Hospital …………………………….132
Figure 4–16. Parking Area Design – “Turn-around” Parking Positions: Hospital ……………………………..133
Figure 4–17. Parking Area Design – “Back-out” Parking Positions: Hospital…………………………………..134
Figure 4–18. “Turn-around” Helicopter Parking Position Marking: Hospital……………………………………135
Figure 4–19. “Taxi-through” and “Back-out” Helicopter Parking Position Marking: Hospital……………136
Figure 4–20. Parking Position Identification, Size, and Weight Limitations: General Aviation…………..137
Figure 4–21. Standard Hospital Heliport Identification Symbols: Hospital ………………………………………139
Figure 4–22. Alternative Hospital Heliport Identification Symbols: Hospital …………………………………..140
Figure 4–23. Paved TLOF/Paved FATO – Paved TLOF/Unpaved FATO – Marking: Hospital ………….141
Figure 4–24. Unpaved TLOF/Unpaved FATO – Marking: Hospital ……………………………………………….142
Figure 4–25. TLOF Size and Weight Limitations: Hospital……………………………………………………………144
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Figure 4–26. Extended Pavement or Structure Marking: Hospital …………………………………………………..145
Figure 4–27. Marking a Closed Heliport: Hospital………………………………………………………………………..147
Figure 4–28. Flush TLOF/FATO Perimeter Lighting: Hospital………………………………………………………149
Figure 4–29. Elevated TLOF, Safety Net and Lighting Heliport Partial Elevation: Hospital ………………150
Figure 4–30. Flush TLOF and Raised FATO Perimeter Lighting: Hospital ……………………………………..151
Figure 4–31. Landing Direction Lights: Hospital………………………………………………………………………….153
Figure 4–32. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended: Hospital…………………………… 155
Figure 4–33. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended: Curved Approach: Hospital ..156
Figure 4–34. Caution Sign: Hospital……………………………………………………………………………………………158
Figure 4–35. Visual Glideslope Indicator Siting and Clearance Criteria: Hospital…………………………….160
Figure 5–1. Heliport Located on an Airport: On Airport………………………………………………………………..163
Figure 6–1. FARA/FATO Relationship: Precision………………………………………………………………………..166
Figure 6–2. Heliport Instrument Lighting System (HILS): Non-precision………………………………………..167
Figure 6–3. Heliport Approach Lighting System…………………………………………………………………………..168
Figure 7–1. Heliport Grades and Rapid Runoff Shoulder: Gradients and Pavement ………………………….170
Figure 7–2. Helicopter Landing Gear Loading: Gradients and Pavement…………………………………………172
Figure 7–3. FATO Elevation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..173
Figure A-1. Rooftop Emergency Landing Facility ………………………………………………………………………..177
Figure B–1. Helicopter Dimensions…………………………………………………………………………………………….184
Figure C–1. Form and Proportions of 36 Inch (91 cm) Numbers for Marking Size and Weight Limitations
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………185
Figure C–2. Form and Proportions of 18 Inch (45.7 cm) Numbers for Marking Size and Weight
Limitation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….186
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1. Minimum VFR Safety Area Width as a Function of General Aviation and PPR Heliport
Markings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..15
Table 2-2. Taxiway/Taxi Route Dimensions – General Aviation Heliports………………………………………..36
Table 3-1. Taxiway and Taxi Route Dimensions – Transport Heliports…………………………………………….77
Table 4-1. Minimum VFR Safety Area Width as a Function of Hospital Heliport Markings………………116
Table 4-2. Taxiway / Taxi Route Dimensions – Hospital Heliports…………………………………………………130
Table 5-1. Recommended Distance between FATO Center to Runway Centerline for VFR Operations 161
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Chapter 1. Introduction
101. Background. Section 103 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 states in part, “In the exercise and
performance of his power and duties under this Act, the Secretary of Transportation shall consider the
following, among other things, as being in the public interest: (a) The regulation of air commerce in such
manner as to best promote its development and safety and fulfill the requirements of defense; (b) The
promotion, encouragement, and development of civil aeronautics . . .” This public charge, in effect,
requires the development and maintenance of a national system of safe heliports. Using the standards and
recommendations contained in this publication in the design of heliports supports this public charge.
These standards and recommendations, however, do not limit or regulate the operations of aircraft. When
it is not feasible to meet all the standards and recommendations in this AC, consult with the appropriate
offices of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Airports and Flight Standards Service to
identify any adjustments to operational procedures necessary to accommodate operations to the maximum
extent.
102. General. This chapter provides an explanation of terms used in this AC, describes the notification
responsibilities of heliport proponents to FAA, provides general siting guidance, and identifies sources of
technical information relating to heliport planning and design of a civil heliport.
103. Facilities. While heliports can be large and elaborate, most are not. The basic elements of a
heliport are clear approach/departure paths, a clear area for ground maneuvers, final approach and takeoff
area (FATO), touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF), safety area, and a wind cone. This minimal facility may
be adequate as a private use prior permission required (PPR) heliport, and may even suffice as the initial
phase in the development of a public use heliport capable of serving the general aviation segment of the
helicopter community.
104. Planning. While the heliport itself may be simple, the planning and organization required to
properly put one into place can be intimidating. Consider the physical, technical, and public interest
matters described in this document in the planning and establishment of a heliport. While this AC is a
technical document intended to help engineers, architects, and city planners design, locate, and build the
most effective heliport, anyone considering the construction of a heliport can use it. Figures in this
document are general representations and are not to scale.
105. Existing heliports. When a change to an existing heliport requires the submission of FAA Form
7460-1, Notice of Proposed Construction or Alteration, or FAA Form 7480-1, Notice of Landing Area
Proposal, bring the heliport up to current standards. It may not, however, be feasible to meet all current
standards at existing heliports. In those cases, consult with the appropriate offices of the FAA Office of
Airports and Flight Standards Service to identify any adjustments to operational procedures necessary to
accommodate operations to the maximum extent.
106. Location. The optimum location for a heliport is near the desired origination and/or destination
of the potential users. Industrial, commercial, and business operations in urban locations are demand
generators for helicopter services, even though they often compete for the limited ground space available.
Heliport sites may be adjacent to a river or a lake, a railroad, a freeway, or a highway, all of which offer
the potential for multi-functional land usage. These locations also have the advantage of relatively
unobstructed airspace, which can be further protected from unwanted encroachment by properly enacted
zoning. As vertical flight transportation becomes more prevalent, requirements for scheduled “airline
type” passenger services may necessitate the development of an instrument procedure to permit “allweather”
service.
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107. AC organization. This AC is structured to provide communities and persons intending to
develop a heliport, or become involved in regulating helicopter facilities, with general guidance on
heliport requirements. The AC covers general aviation heliports (including PPR), transport heliports,
hospital heliports, and emergency landing facilities. It is important for a heliport proponent to be familiar
with the terminology used in this specialized field. This chapter defines terms used in the industry and
identifies actions common to developing a heliport.
a. General aviation heliports. The term “general aviation” is technically defined as “flights
conducted by operators other than Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121 or Part 135
certificate holders.”1
However, for the purposes of this AC, “general aviation” refers to all helicopter
operations other than scheduled passenger service. Hospital heliports and emergency landing facilities fall
under general aviation, but are treated separately in the AC due to their unique requirements. General
aviation heliports are normally privately owned although they can be publicly owned. Find design
standards for general aviation heliports in Chapter 2.
b. Transport heliports. Transport heliports will provide the community with a full range of
vertical flight services including scheduled service by air carriers (airlines) using helicopters. These
operations will require a more extensive airside and landside infrastructure with the potential capability to
operate in instrument meteorological conditions. Find design standards for transport heliports in
Chapter 3.
c. Hospital heliports. Hospital heliports are general aviation heliports that provide a unique
public service. They are normally located close to the hospital emergency room or a medical facility. Find
design standards for hospital heliports in 4Chapter 4.
d. Helicopter facilities on airports. When there are a significant number of helicopter
operations on an airport, consider developing separate facilities specifically for helicopter use. Chapter 5
addresses helicopter facilities on airports.
e. Instrument operations. With the introduction of the global positioning system (GPS), it is
now practical for heliports to have instrument approach procedures. Good planning suggests that heliport
proponents plan for the eventual development of instrument approaches to their heliports. Consider the
recommendations in Chapter 6 in contemplating future instrument operations at a heliport. It is wise to
consider these issues during site selection and design.
f. Heliport gradients and pavement design. 4Chapter 7 addresses heliport gradients and
pavement design issues.
g. The appendices provide information about emergency helicopter landing facilities, helicopter
dimensional data, form and proportions of certain heliport markings, and a list of publications and
resources referenced in this AC.
108. Explanation of terms. The Pilot/Controller Glossary of the Aeronautical Information Manual
(AIM) defines terms used in the Air Traffic System. Copies of the AIM are available from the FAA web
site http://www.faa.gov/atpubs. Other terms used in this publication follow:
a. Air taxi. Used both to refer to on-demand air carriers and as a synonym for “hover taxi.” See
hover taxi.
b. Approach/departure path. The flight track helicopters follow when landing at or departing
from a heliport. The approach/departure paths may be straight or curved.
1
Plane Sense General Aviation Information, U.S. Department of Transportation FAA-H-8083-19A,

Click to access faa-h-8083-19A.pdf


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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
c. Design helicopter. A single or composite helicopter that reflects the maximum weight,
maximum contact load/minimum contact area, overall length (D), rotor diameter (RD), tail rotor arc
radius, undercarriage dimensions, and pilot’s eye height of all helicopters expected to operate at the
heliport.
d. D (Formerly “OL”). The overall length of the helicopter, which is the dimension from the
tip of the main or forward rotor to the tip of the tail rotor, fin, or other rear-most point of the helicopter.
This value is with the rotors at their maximum extension. See Figure B–1. If only the value of the rotor
diameter (RD) is known, estimate the value for D using the relationship D = 1.2 RD (or conversely, RD =
0.83 D).
e. Design loads. Design and construct the TLOF and any load-bearing surfaces to support the
loads imposed by the design helicopter and any ground support vehicles and equipment.
(1) Static load. For design purposes, the design static load is equal to the helicopter’s
maximum takeoff weight applied through the total contact area of the wheels or skids. See paragraph 707.
(2) Dynamic load. For design purposes, assume the dynamic load at 150 percent of the
maximum takeoff weight of the design helicopter applied through the main undercarriage on a wheelequipped
helicopter or aft contact areas of skid-equipped helicopter. See paragraph 707.
f. Elevated heliport. A heliport located on a rooftop or other elevated structure where the
TLOF is at least 30 inches (76 cm) above the surrounding surface (a ground level heliport with the TLOF
on a mound is not an elevated heliport).
g. Emergency helicopter landing facility (EHLF). A clear area at ground level or on the roof
of a building capable of accommodating helicopters engaged in fire fighting and/or emergency evacuation
operations. An EHLF meets the definition of a heliport in this AC and under Title 14 CFR Part 157,
Notice of Construction, Alteration, Activation, and Deactivation of Airports.
h. Final approach and takeoff area (FATO). A defined area over which the pilot completes
the final phase of the approach to a hover or a landing and from which the pilot initiates takeoff. The
FATO elevation is the lowest elevation of the edge of the TLOF. See Figure 7–3.
i. Final approach reference area (FARA). An obstacle-free area with its center aligned on the
final approach course. It is located at the end of a precision instrument FATO.
j. Flush lights. Where the term “flush lights” is specified in this AC, interpret it as including
semi-flush lights.
k. Frangible/frangibly mounted. While there is no accepted standard for frangibility in regard
to helicopter operations, remove all objects from a FATO or safety area except those of the lowest mass
practicable and frangibly mounted to the extent practicable.
l. General aviation heliport. A heliport intended to accommodate individuals, corporations,
helicopter air taxi operators, and public safety agencies. For the purposes of this AC, “general aviation”
refers to all helicopter operations other than scheduled passenger service. Hospital heliports and
emergency landing facilities fall under general aviation, but are treated separately in the AC due to their
unique requirements.
m. Ground taxi. The surface movement of a wheeled helicopter under its own power with
wheels touching the ground.
n. Hazard to air navigation. Any object having a substantial adverse effect upon the safe and
efficient use of the navigable airspace by aircraft, upon the operation of air navigation facilities, or upon
existing or planned airport/heliport capacity as determined by the FAA.
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
o. Heliport. The area of land, water, or a structure used or intended to be used for the landing
and takeoff of helicopters, together with appurtenant buildings and facilities.
p. Heliport elevation. The highest point of the TLOF expressed as the distance above mean sea
level.
q. Heliport imaginary surfaces. The imaginary planes defined in Title 14 CFR Part 77, Safe,
Efficient Use, and Preservation of the Navigable Airspace, centered about the FATO and the
approach/departure paths, which are used to identify the objects where notice to and evaluation by the
FAA is required. Recommendations may include realignment of approach/departure paths or removal,
lowering, marking and lighting of objects.
r. Heliport layout plan. The plan of a heliport showing the layout of existing and proposed
heliport facilities including the approach/departure paths.
s. Heliport protection zone (HPZ). An area off the end of the FATO and under the
approach/departure path intended to enhance the protection of people and property on the ground.
t. Heliport reference point (HRP). The geographic position of the heliport expressed as the
latitude and longitude at:
(1) The center of the FATO, or the centroid of multiple FATOs, for heliports having visual
and non-precision instrument approach procedures; or
(2) The center of the FARA when the heliport has a precision instrument procedure.
u. Helistop. A term sometimes used to describe a minimally developed heliport for boarding
and discharging passengers or cargo. This AC does not use this term, as the design standards and
recommendations this AC apply to all heliports.
v. Hospital heliport. A heliport limited to serving helicopters engaged in air ambulance, or
other hospital related functions. A designated helicopter landing area located at a hospital or medical
facility is a heliport and not a medical emergency site.
w. Hover taxi (also called air taxi). The movement of a wheeled or skid-equipped helicopter
above the surface. Generally, this takes place at a wheel/skid height of 1 to 5 feet (0.3 to 1.5 m) and at a
ground speed of less than 20 knots (37 km/h). For facility design purposes, assume a skid-equipped
helicopter to hover-taxi.
x. Landing position. An area, normally located in the center of an elongated TLOF, on which
the helicopter lands.
y. Large helicopter. A helicopter with a maximum takeoff weight of more than 12,500 lbs.
z. Load-bearing area (LBA). The portion of the FATO capable of supporting the dynamic load
of the design helicopter.
aa. Medical emergency site. An unprepared site at or near the scene of an accident or similar
medical emergency on which a helicopter may land to pick up a patient in order to provide emergency
medical transport. A medical emergency site is not a heliport as defined in this AC.
bb. Medium helicopter. A helicopter with a maximum takeoff weight of 7,001 to 12,500 lbs.
cc. Obstruction to air navigation. Any fixed or mobile object, including a parked helicopter, of
greater height than any of the heights or surfaces presented in subpart C of part 77 (see also paragraph
111 in this AC).
dd. Overall length (D). See D, paragraph 108.d.
ee. Parking pad. The paved center portion of a parking position.
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
ff. Prior permission required (PPR) heliport. A heliport developed for exclusive use of the
owner and persons authorized by the owner and about which the owner and operator ensure all authorized
pilots are thoroughly knowledgeable. These features include but are not limited to: approach/departure
path characteristics, preferred heading, facility limitations, lighting, obstacles in the area, and size and
weight capacity of the facility.
gg. Public use heliport. A heliport available for use by the general public without a requirement
for prior approval of the owner or operator.
hh. RD. Rotor Diameter. The length of the main rotor, from tip to tip.
ii. Rotor downwash. The downward movement of air caused by the action of the rotating main
rotor blades. When this air strikes the ground or some other surface, it causes a turbulent outflow of air
from beneath the helicopter.
jj. Safety area. A defined area on a heliport surrounding the FATO intended to reduce the risk
of damage to helicopters accidentally diverging from the FATO.
kk. Shielded obstruction. A proposed or existing obstruction that does not need to be marked or
lighted due to its close proximity to another obstruction whose highest point is at the same or higher
elevation.
ll. Shoulder line. A marking line perpendicular to a helicopter parking position centerline that is
intended to provide the pilot with a visual cue to assist in parking.
mm. Small helicopter. A helicopter with a maximum takeoff weight of 7,000 lbs or less.
nn. Tail rotor arc radius. The distance from the hub of the main rotor to the outermost tip of the
tail rotor or the rear-most point of the helicopter tail, whichever is farther.
oo. Takeoff position. An area, normally located on the centerline and at the ends of an elongated
TLOF, from which the helicopter takes off. Typically, there are two such positions on an elongated
TLOF, one at each end.
pp. Taxi route. An obstruction-free corridor established for the movement of helicopters from
one part of a heliport/airport to another. A taxi route includes the taxiway plus the appropriate clearances
on both sides.
qq. Taxiway. A marked route between the TLOF and other areas on the heliport. This AC
defines two types of helicopter taxiways:
(1) Ground taxiway. A taxiway intended to permit the surface movement of a wheeled
helicopter under its own power with wheels on the ground. The minimum dimensions defined for a
ground taxiway may not be adequate for hover taxi.
(2) Hover taxiway. A taxiway intended to permit the hover taxiing of a helicopter.
rr. Touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF). A load-bearing, generally paved area, normally
centered in the FATO, on which the helicopter lands and/or takes off.
ss. Transport heliport. A heliport intended to accommodate air carrier operators providing
scheduled service.
tt. Touchdown/positioning circle (TDPC) marking. A circular marking located in the center
of a TLOF or a parking position. When the pilot’s seat is over the TDPC, the whole of the helicopter
undercarriage will be within the TLOF or parking position and all parts of the helicopter rotor system will
be clear of any obstacle by a safe margin.
5
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
uu. Unshielded obstruction. A proposed or existing obstruction that may need to be marked or
lighted since it is not near another marked and lighted obstruction whose highest point is at the same or
higher elevation.
109. Selection of approach/departure paths. Design heliports to the extent practicable for two
approach/departure paths. Consider items such as the following in selecting the approach/departure paths:
a. Wind. Well-designed approach/departure paths permit pilots to avoid downwind conditions
and minimize crosswind operations. Align the preferred flight approach/departure path, to the extent
feasible, with the predominant wind direction. Base other approach/departure paths on the assessment of
the prevailing winds or, when this information is not available, separate such flight paths and the
preferred flight path by at least 135 degrees. If it is not feasible to provide complete coverage of wind
through multiple approach/departure paths, operational limitations may be necessary under certain wind
conditions. See paragraph 101.
b. Obstructions. In determining approach/departure paths, take into account the obstructions in
the vicinity of the heliport and, in particular, those likely to be a hazard to air navigation. See paragraph
111.
c. Environmental impacts. In environmentally sensitive areas, select the final
approach/departure path(s) to minimize any environmental impact, providing it does not decrease flight
safety. See paragraph 113.
110. Notification requirements. Part 157 sets requirements for persons proposing to construct,
activate, deactivate, or alter a heliport to give advance notice of their intent to the FAA. This includes
changing the size or number of FATOs; adding, deleting, or changing an approach or departure route; or
changing heliport status. An example of a heliport status change would be a change from private to public
use or vice versa. When notification is required, file Form 7480-1 (see Figure 1–1) with the appropriate
FAA Airports Regional or District Office at least 90 days before construction, alteration, deactivation, or
change in use. See the FAA Airports web site at http://www.faa.gov/airports/ for contact information.
a. Draw the heliport layout plan to scale showing key dimensions, such as the heliport elevation,
TLOF size, FATO size, safety area size, distance from safety area perimeter to property edges, and
approach/departure paths showing locations of buildings, trees, fences, power lines, obstructions (including
elevations), schools, churches, hospitals, residential communities, waste disposal sites, and other significant
features as specified on Form 7480-1 and as suggested in Figure 1–2.
b. The preferred type of location map is the 7.5-minute U.S. Geological Survey Quadrangle Map,
available from the US Geological Survey at nationalmap.gov. Web-based maps are also acceptable. Show
the location of the heliport site and the approach/departure paths on the map. Point out the heliport site on
this map with an arrow. Indicate the latitude and longitude of the proposed heliport in North American
Datum of 1983 (NAD-83) coordinates. See Figure 1–3.
c. The FAA role. The FAA will conduct an aeronautical study of the proposed heliport under
part 157. Title 14 CFR Part 157.7, FAA determinations, states: “The FAA will conduct an aeronautical
study of an airport proposal and, after consultations with interested persons, as appropriate, issue a
determination to the proponent and advise those concerned of the FAA determination. The FAA will
consider matters such as the effects the proposed action would have on existing or contemplated traffic
patterns of neighboring airports; the effects the proposed action would have on the existing airspace
structure and projected programs of the FAA; and the effects that existing or proposed manmade objects
(on file with the FAA) and natural objects within the affected area would have on the airport proposal.
While determinations consider the effects of the proposed action on the safe and efficient use of airspace
by aircraft and the safety of persons and property on the ground, the determinations are only advisory.
Except for an objectionable determination, each determination will contain a determination-void date to
6
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
facilitate efficient planning of the use of the navigable airspace. A determination does not relieve the
proponent of responsibility for compliance with any local law, ordinance or regulation, or state or other
federal regulation. Aeronautical studies and determinations will not consider environmental or land use
compatibility impacts.”
Figure 1–1. Form 7480-1, Notice of Landing Area Proposal
7
EARHART AVENUE
AUTO PARKING AREA
CITY PROPERTY
N
OFFICE
FUTURE HELICOPTER PARKING
FATO LIGHTS
FLUSH TLOF PERIMETER LIGHTS
LANDING DIRECTION
CITY PROPERTY
APPROACH/
DEPARTURE
DEPARTURE
APPROACH/
LIGHTS
TLOF SURFACE
SURFACE IN-GROUND FATO EDGE MARKERS
SAFETY AREA
HELIPORT PROPERTY LINE
Note: Draw layout diagramsto scale with key dimensions shown as TLOF size, FATO
size, safety area size, distances from safety area perimeter to property edges, etc.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 1–2. Example of a Heliport Layout Plan
d. Penalty for failure to provide notice. Persons who fail to give notice are subject to civil
penalty under Title 49 United States Code 46301, Civil Penalties, of not more than $25,000 (or $1,100 if the
person is an individual or small business concern).
e. Notice exemptions. Paragraph 157.1, Applicability, of part 157 exempts sites meeting one of
the conditions below from the requirement to submit notice. These exemptions do not negate a notice or
formal approval requirement prescribed by state law or local ordinance. For the purposes of applying the
part 157 exemption criteria cited in (2) and (3) below, a landing and associated takeoff is considered to be
one operation. Part 157.1 projects are:
(1) [A heliport] subject to conditions of a federal agreement that requires an
approved current heliport layout plan to be on file with the FAA, or
(2) [A heliport] at which flight operations will be conducted under visual
flight rules (VFR) and which is used or intended to be used for a period of less than 30
consecutive days with no more than 10 operations per day.
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
(3) The intermittent use of a site that is not an established airport, that is
used or intended to be used for less than 1 year, and at which flight operations will be
conducted only under VFR. For the purpose of this part, “intermittent use of a site”
means:
(a) the site is used or is intended to be used for no more than 3 days in
any one week and
(b) no more than 10 operations will be conducted in any one day at that
site.
111. Hazards to air navigation. Part 77 establishes requirements for notification to the FAA of
objects that may affect navigable airspace. It sets standards for determining obstructions to navigable
airspace and provides for aeronautical studies of such obstructions to determine their effect on the safe
and efficient use of airspace. Part 77 applies only to public airports and heliports, airports operated by a
federal agency or the Department of Defense, and private airports and heliports with at least one FAAapproved
instrument approach procedure. See Figure 1–4.
a. FAA studies.
(1) Part 77. Part 77 defines objects that are obstructions to surfaces. Presume these objects to
be hazards unless an FAA study determines otherwise. The FAA conducts aeronautical studies to
determine the physical and electromagnetic effect on the use of navigable airspace, air navigational
facilities, public airports and heliports, and private airports and heliports with at least one FAA-approved
instrument approach procedure. The FAA encourages public agencies to enact zoning ordinances to
prevent man-made features from becoming hazards to navigation.
(2) Part 157. While the FAA performs aeronautical studies under part 157 (see paragraph
110.c), such studies do not identify hazards to private facilities that do not have an FAA-approved
instrument approach.
b. Mitigation of hazards. You may mitigate the adverse effect of an object presumed or
determined to be a hazard by:
(1) Removing the object.
(2) Altering the object, for example, reducing its height.
(3) Marking and/or lighting the object, provided an FAA aeronautical study has determined
that the object would not be a hazard to air navigation if it were marked and/or lighted. Find guidance on
marking and lighting objects in AC 70/7460-1, Obstruction Marking and Lighting.
c. Notification requirements. Part 77 requires persons proposing certain construction or
alteration to give 45-day notice to the FAA of their intent. Use FAA Form 7460-1, Notice of Proposed
Construction or Alteration to provide notification. See https://oeaaa.faa.gov for more information and to
download the form.
d. Heliport development plans. Future public heliport development plans and feasibility studies
on file with the FAA may influence the determinations resulting from part 77 studies. Owners of public
heliports and owners of private heliports with FAA-approved instrument approach procedures can ensure
full consideration of future heliport development in part 77 studies only when they file plans with the FAA.
Include in heliport plan data the coordinates and elevations of planned FATO(s), approach/departure paths
including their azimuths, and types of approaches for any new FATO or modification of an existing FATO.
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 1–3. Example of a Heliport Location Map
112. Federal assistance. The FAA administers a grant program that provides financial assistance to
eligible sponsors to develop a public use heliport. Information on federal aid program eligibility
requirements is available from FAA Airports Regional and District Offices and on the FAA Airports web
site, www.faa.gov/airports.
113. Environmental impact analyses. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 requires the
FAA to consider potential environmental impacts prior to agency decision making, including, for
example, the decision to fund or approve a project, plan, license, permit, certification, rulemaking, or
operations specification, unless these actions are within an existing categorical exclusion and no
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
extraordinary circumstances exist. Actions that may require an environmental assessment are normally
associated with federal grants or heliport layout plan approvals leading to the construction of a new
heliport or significant expansion of an existing heliport.
a. Assessment items. An environmental assessment addresses noise, historic and cultural
resources, wildlife, energy conservation, land usage, air quality, water quality, pollution prevention, light
emissions and other visual effects, electromagnetic fields, other public health and safety issues, the “no
action” alternative and a reasonable range of feasible alternatives, including mitigation not integrated into
the alternative initially. It also describes the action taken to ensure public involvement in the planning
process. An opportunity for a public hearing may be required for the federally funded development of, or
significant improvement to, an existing heliport.
b. Guidance. FAA Order 5050.4, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing
Instructions for Airport Projects, and FAA Order 1050.1, Polices and Procedures for Considering
Environmental Impacts, and other supplemental guidance from FAA Air Traffic and Flight Standards
provide guidance on environmental impact analysis. Contact state and local governments, including
metropolitan planning organizations and local transit agencies, directly as they may also require an
environmental report. The procedures in AC 150/5020-1, Noise Control and Compatibility Planning for
Airports, describe a means of assessing the noise impact. Contact the appropriate FAA Airports Regional
or District Office for current information related to assessing noise impact of heliports. Proponents of
non-federally assisted heliports work with local governmental authorities concerning environmental
issues.
114. Access to heliports by individuals with disabilities. Congress has passed various laws
concerning access to airports. Since heliports are a type of airport, these laws are similarly applicable.
Find guidance in AC 150/5360-14, Access to Airports by Individuals with Disabilities.
115. State role. Many state departments of transportation, aeronautical commissions, or similar
authorities require prior approval and, in some instances, a license for the establishment and operation of
a heliport. Several states administer a financial assistance program similar to the federal program and are
staffed to provide technical advice. Contact your respective state aeronautics commissions or departments
for particulars on licensing and assistance programs. Contact information for state aviation agencies is
available at http://www.faa.gov/airports/resources/state_aviation.
116. Local role. Some communities have enacted zoning laws, building codes, fire regulations, etc.
that can affect heliport establishment and operation. Some have or are in the process of developing codes
or ordinances regulating environmental issues such as noise and air pollution. A few localities have
enacted specific rules governing the establishment of a heliport. Therefore, make early contact with
officials or agencies representing the local zoning board, the fire, police, or sheriff’s department, and the
elected person(s) who represent the area where the heliport is to be located.
117. Related referenced material. Find a list of related and referenced publications in Appendix D.
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
200 FT
5000 FT
FINAL APPROACH AND
TAKEOFF AREA (FATO)
1
2
5
6
4
Notes:
required by 14 CFR part 77.9).
Building is less than 200 ft [61 m] in height, but top will penetrate the 25:1 surface (notice is
Antenna is less than 200 ft [61 m] in height, and penetrates the 25:1 surface (notice is
required by 14 CFR part 77.9 (b)(3)).
Construction crane penetrates 25:1 surface (notice is required by 14 CFR part 77.9 (b)(3)).
Building is less than 200 ft [61 m] in height and does not penetrate the 25:1 surface (notice
is not required).
Building is more than 5,000 ft [1,525 m] from heliport (notice is required if building will be
200 ft [61 m] or more in height).
1
3
4
5
6
Note: Notice under 14 CFR part 77 required for all public-use heliports or a private use heliport
with at least one FAA-approved instrument approach procedure.
[1524 M]
[61 M]
3
2 Antenna is over 200 ft [61 m] in height (notice is required by 14 CFR part 77.9 (a)).
Figure 1–4. Offsite Development Requiring Notice to the FAA
12
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Chapter 2. General Aviation Heliports
201. General. A general aviation heliport accommodates helicopters used by individuals,
corporations, and helicopter air taxi services. While general aviation heliports may be publicly owned,
this is not required. Most general aviation heliports are privately owned.
202. Applicability. The standards in this chapter apply to projects funded under the Airport
Improvement Program (AIP) or the Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) program. For other
projects/heliports, these standards are the FAA’s recommendations for designing all general aviation
heliports. The design standards in this chapter assume that there will never be more than one helicopter
within the final approach and takeoff area (FATO) and the associated safety area. If there is a need for
more than one touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF) at a heliport, locate each TLOF within its own FATO
and within its own safety area. Figure 2–1 illustrates the essential features of a general aviation heliport.
Locate the wind cone so that it will not interfere with the Approach/Departure Path or
Transitional Surface.
APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE
Notes:
1.
2. TLOF size and weight limitation box omitted for clarity.
FATO
TLOF
TLOF PERIMETER
MARKING
WIND
CONE
APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE
IN-GROUND FATO EDGE MARKING
SAFETY AREA
TDPC MARKING
HELIPORT IDENTIFICATION
MARKING
Figure 2–1. Essential Features of a Heliport: General Aviation
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
203. Prior permission required (PPR) facilities. The standards in this AC are recommended for all
heliports. As PPR heliports are never eligible for federal financial assistance, do not interpret any
recommendation in this AC that is not required by federal law or regulation as mandatory for PPR
heliports. Recommendations for PPR heliports are provided in recognition of the unique nature of
facilities where the operator ensures pilots are thoroughly familiar with the heliport, its procedures, and
any facility limitations.
204. Access by individuals with disabilities. Various laws require heliports operated by public
entities and those receiving federal financial assistance to meet accessibility requirements. See paragraph
114.
205. Heliport site selection.
a. Long term planning. The FAA encourages public agencies and others planning to develop a
general aviation heliport to consider the possible future need for instrument operations and expansion.
b. Property requirements. The property needed for a general aviation heliport depends upon the
volume and types of users, size of helicopters, and the scope of amenities provided. Property needs for
helicopter operators and for passenger amenities frequently exceed those for “airside” purposes.
c. Turbulence. Air flowing around and over buildings, stands of trees, terrain irregularities, etc. can
create turbulence on ground-level and roof-top heliports that may affect helicopter operations. Where the
FATO is located near the edge and top of a building or structure, or within the influence of turbulent
wakes from other buildings or structures, assess the turbulence and airflow characteristics in the vicinity
of, and across the surface of the FATO to determine if an air-gap between the roof, roof parapet or
supporting structure, and/or some other turbulence mitigating design measure is necessary. FAA
Technical Report FAA/RD-84/25, Evaluating Wind Flow around Buildings on Heliport Placement,
addresses the wind’s effect on helicopter operations. Take the following actions in selecting a site to
minimize the effects of turbulence.
(1) Ground-level heliports. Features such buildings, trees, and other large objects can cause air
turbulence and affect helicopter operations from sites immediately adjacent to them. Therefore, locate the
landing and takeoff area away from such objects in order to minimize air turbulence in the vicinity of the
FATO and the approach/departure paths.
(2) Elevated heliports. Establishing a 6 foot (1.8 m) or more air gap on all sides above the level
of the roof will generally minimize the turbulent effect of air flowing over the roof edge. Keep air gaps
free at all times of objects that would obstruct the airflow. If it is not practical to include an air gap or
some other turbulence mitigating design measure where there is turbulence, operational limitations may
be necessary under certain wind conditions. See paragraph 101.
d. Electromagnetic effects. Nearby electromagnetic devices, such as a large ventilator motor,
elevator motor or other devices that consume large amounts of electricity may cause temporary
aberrations in the helicopter magnetic compass and interfere with other onboard navigational equipment.
206. Basic layout. A basic heliport consists of a TLOF contained within a FATO. A safety area
surrounds the FATO. Table 2-1 shows how the standards for safety area width vary as a function of
heliport markings. The relationship of the TLOF to the FATO and the safety area is shown in Figure 2–2.
A FATO contains only one TLOF. Provide appropriate approach/departure airspace to allow safe
approaches to and departures from landing sites. To the extent feasible, align the preferred
approach/departure path with the predominant winds. See paragraph 210.
14
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Table 2-1. Minimum VFR Safety Area Width
as a Function of General Aviation and PPR Heliport Markings
General aviation heliports
1
/3 RD but
not less than
20 ft (6 m)**
1
/3 RD but
not less than
30 ft (9 m)**
½D but
not less than
20 ft (6 m)
½ D but
not less than
30 ft (9 m)
PPR heliports
1
/3 RD but
not less than
10 ft (3 m) **
1
/3 RD but
not less than
20 ft (6 m)**
½ D but
not less than
20 ft (6 m)
½ D but
not less than
30 ft (9 m)
TLOF perimeter marked Yes Yes No No
FATO perimeter marked Yes Yes Yes Yes
Standard “H” marking Yes No Yes No
D: Overall length of the design helicopter
RD: Rotor diameter of the design helicopter
** Also applies when the FATO is not marked. Do not mark the FATO if (a) the FATO (or part of the
FATO) is a non-load bearing surface and/or (b) the TLOF is elevated above the level of a surrounding loadbearing
area.
207. Touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF).
a. TLOF location. TLOFs of general aviation heliports are at ground level, on elevated structures,
and at rooftop level. Center the TLOF within the FATO. At a PPR rooftop or other PPR elevated facility,
where the entire FATO is not load-bearing, locating the TLOF in a load-bearing area (LBA) that is as
large as possible may provide some operational advantages. In this case, locate the TLOF in the center of
the LBA.
b. TLOF size. Design the TLOF so the minimum dimension (length, width, or diameter) is at least
equal to the RD of the design helicopter (except as noted in (2) below). Design the TLOF to be
rectangular or circular. Each has its advantages. A square or rectangular shape provides the pilot with
better alignment cues than a circular shape, but a circular TLOF may be more recognizable in an urban
environment. Increasing the LBA centered on the TLOF may provide some safety and operational
advantages. At PPR facilities, if only a portion of the TLOF is paved, design the TLOF so the minimum
length and width of this paved portion is not less than two times the maximum dimension (length or
width) of the undercarriage of the design helicopter. Locate the center of the TLOF in the center of this
paved portion. To avoid the risk of catching a skid and the potential for a dynamic rollover, make sure
there is no difference in elevation between the paved and unpaved portions of the TLOF.
(1) Elevated public general aviation heliport. If the FATO outside the TLOF is not loadbearing,
increase the minimum width, length or diameter of the TLOF to the overall length (D) of the
design helicopter. See paragraph 207.b(3).
(2) Elevated PPR heliports. At PPR rooftop or elevated facilities where the height of the TLOF
surface above the adjacent ground or structure is no greater than 30 inches (76 cm), and there is a solid
adjacent ground or structure equal to the rotor diameter (RD) able to support 20 lbs/sq ft (98 kg/sq m) live
load, design the minimum dimension of the TLOF to be at least the smaller of the RD and two times the
maximum dimension (length or width) of the undercarriage of the design helicopter. Locate the center of
the LBA of the TLOF in the center of the FATO.
(3) Elongated TLOF. An elongated TLOF can provide an increased safety margin and greater
operational flexibility. As an option, design an elongated TLOF with a landing position in the center and
two takeoff positions, one at either end. Design the landing position to have a minimum length equal to
the RD of the design helicopter. If the TLOF is elongated, also provide an elongated FATO. Figure 2–3
shows an elongated TLOF and an elongated FATO.
15
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
TLOF
FATO
DIM
A
B
C
E
F
ITEM
Minimum TLOF Length
VALUE
1 RD
1 RD
G See Table 2-1
Minimum TLOF Width
Minimum FATO Width
Minimum FATO Length
Minimum Safety Area Width
Minimum Separation
Between the Perimeters
See Paragraph 207.a.(1) and
of elevations above 1000′
Figure 2-5 for adjustments
NOTES
of the TLOF and FATO
B
E
F
A C
G
SAFETY AREA
Note: For a circular TLOF and FATO, dimensions A, B, C and E refer to diameters.
1 1
2 D
1 1
2 D
3 4 D – 1
2 RD
Figure 2–2. TLOF/FATO Safety Area Relationships and Minimum Dimensions:
General Aviation
16
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
DIM
A
B
C
E
ITEM VALUE
1 RD
1 RD
F See Table 2-1
NOTES
Minimum TLOF Width
Minimum FATO Width
Minimum Safety Area Width
Minimum Separation
Between the Perimeters
of the TLOF and FATO
Position Length
Minimum TLOF/Landing
1 1
2 D
3 4 D – 1
2 RD
A
B
C
E
F
E
F
TAKEOFF POSITION
TAKEOFF POSITION
FATO
TLOF
LANDING POSITION
SAFETY AREA
Note: For a circular TLOF and FATO, dimensions A, B, C and E refer to diameters.
Figure 2–3. Elongated FATO with Two Takeoff Positions: General Aviation
c. Ground-level TLOF surface characteristics.
(1) Design loads. Design the TLOF and any supporting TLOF structure to be capable of
supporting the dynamic loads of the design helicopter.
(2) Paving. Provide either a paved or aggregate-turf surface for the TLOF (see AC 150/5370-10,
Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports items P-217, Aggregate-Turf Pavement and P-501,
Portland Cement Concrete Pavement). Use portland cement concrete (PCC) when feasible for groundlevel
facilities. An asphalt surface is less desirable for heliports as it may rut under the wheels or skids of
17
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
a parked helicopter. This has been a factor in some rollover accidents. Use a broomed or roughened
pavement finish to provide a skid-resistant surface for helicopters and non-slippery footing for people.
For PPR heliports where only a portion of the TLOF is paved, design the paved portion to dynamic loadbearing.
Design the adjacent ground or structure of the TLOF for the static loads of the design helicopter.
d. Rooftop and other elevated TLOFs.
(1) Design loads. Design elevated TLOFs and any TLOF supporting structure to capable of
supporting the dynamic loads of the design helicopter described in paragraph 707.b. An elevated heliport
is illustrated in Figure 2–4.
(2) Elevation. Elevate the TLOF above the level of any obstacle in the FATO and safety area
that cannot be removed.
(3) Obstructions. Elevator penthouses, cooling towers, exhaust vents, fresh-air vents, and other
raised features can affect heliport operations. Establish control mechanisms to ensure obstruction hazards
are not installed after the heliport is operational.
(4) Air quality. Helicopter exhaust can affect building air quality if the heliport is too close to
fresh air vents. When designing a building intended to support a helipad, locate fresh air vents
accordingly. When adding a heliport to an existing building, relocate fresh air vents if necessary or, if that
is not practical, installing charcoal filters or a fresh air intake bypass louver system for HVAC systems
may be adequate.
(5) TLOF surface characteristics. Construct rooftop and other elevated heliport TLOFs of
metal or concrete (or other materials subject to local building codes). Use a finish for TLOF surfaces that
provides a skid-resistant surface for helicopters and non-slippery footing for people.
(6) Safety net. If the platform is elevated 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above its surroundings, Title 29
CFR Part 1910.23, Guarding Floor and Wall Openings and Holes, requires the provision of fall
protection. The FAA recommends such protection for all platforms elevated 30 inches (76 cm) or more.
However, do not use permanent railings or fences since they would be safety hazards during helicopter
operations. As an option, install a safety net meeting state and local regulations but not less than 5 feet
(1.5 m) wide. Design the safety net to have a load carrying capability of 25 lbs/sq ft (122 kg/sq m). Make
sure the net, as illustrated in Figure 2–28, does not project above the level of the TLOF. Fasten both the
inside and outside edges of the safety net to a solid structure. Construct nets of materials that are resistant
to environmental effects.
18
HELIPORT BEACON
LIGHTED WIND CONE
FATO
RAISED TLOF
5 FT [1.5 M] WIDE
SAFETY NET
SAFETY AREA
FLUSH TLOF
LIGHTING
RAMP
Post at Personnel Entrance
CAUTION
HELICOPTER LANDING
AREA
SAFETY
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
STAY CLEAR
OF THE
AVOID FRONT AND REAR TAIL ROTOR
AREA OF HELICOPTER Notes: APPROACH AND LEAVE HELICOPTER AS DIRECTED BY CREW
IN A CROUCHED MANNER WHEN ROTORS ARE TURNING
1. See Figure 2-28, Elevated TLOF Perimeter Lighting: General INSTRUCTIONS Aviation, for detailed views of the safety net and lighting. AUTHORIZED
PERSONNEL
2. TLOF size and weight limitation box is not ONLY shown for clarity.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–4. Elevated Heliport: General Aviation
19
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
(7) Access to elevated TLOFs. Title 29 CFR Part 1926.34, Means of Egress, requires two
separate access points for an elevated structure such as one supporting an elevated TLOF. Title 29 CFR
Part 1910.24, Fixed Industrial Stairs applies to stairs. Design handrails required by this regulation to fold
down or be removable to below the level of the TLOF so they will not be hazards during helicopter
operations.
e. TLOF gradients. See paragraph 702 for TLOF gradient standards.
208. Final approach and takeoff area (FATO). A general aviation heliport has at least one FATO.
The FATO contains a TLOF within its borders at which arriving helicopters terminate their approach and
from which departing helicopters take off.
a. FATO size.
(1) Design the minimum width, length, or diameter of a FATO to be at least 1.5 times the overall
length (D) of the design helicopter. Design the FATO to be circular or rectangular, regardless of the shape
of the TLOF. At elevations above 1,000 feet MSL, include a longer, rectangular FATO to provide an
increased safety margin and greater operational flexibility. Use the additional FATO length depicted in
Figure 2–5. Where the operator of a PPR heliport chooses not to provide additional FATO length, the
operator makes sure that all pilots using the facility are thoroughly knowledgeable with this and any other
facility limitations.
(2) Design the minimum distance between the TLOF perimeter and the FATO perimeter to be
not less than the distance (¾ D – ½ RD) where D is the overall length and RD is the rotor diameter of the
design helicopter. Note that if the TLOF and FATO are not of similar shape, this applies at all points of
the TLOF perimeter. The relationship of the TLOF to the FATO and the safety area is shown in Figure 2–
2.
b. FATO surface characteristics. If the heliport operator marks the TLOF, the FATO outside the
TLOF need not load-bearing.
(1) Ground level public general aviation heliports. If the heliport operator does not mark the
TLOF (see paragraph 215.a), and/or intends that the helicopter be able to land anywhere within the
FATO, design the FATO outside the TLOF and any FATO supporting structure, like the TLOF, to be
capable of supporting the dynamic loads of the design helicopter, as described in paragraph 707.b.
(2) Ground level PPR heliports. If the heliport operator does not mark the TLOF, and/or
intends for the helicopter to be able to land anywhere within the FATO, design the FATO outside the
TLOF and any FATO supporting structure, like the TLOF, to be capable of supporting the dynamic loads
of the design helicopter, as described in paragraph 707.b.
20
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
300
200
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
90
60
30
ADDITION TO FATO LENGTH IN FEET
ADDITION TO FATO LENGTH IN METERS
SITE ELEVATION (IN THOUSANDS OF FEET)
Example: Add 80 feet to the basic FATO length for a site elevation of 3,200 feet.
Figure 2–5. Additional FATO Length for Heliports at Higher Elevations:
General Aviation
(3) Elevated heliports. As an option, design the FATO outside the TLOF to extend into clear
airspace. However, there are some helicopter performance benefits and increased operational flexibility if
the FATO outside the TLOF is load bearing. Design the FATO outside of the TLOF to be load-bearing,
or increase the minimum width and length or diameter of TLOF to the overall length of the design
helicopter.
(4) Elevated PPR heliports. For elevated PPR heliports, if the heliport operator intends to mark
the TLOF, as an option design the FATO outside the TLOF and the safety area to extend into the clear
airspace (see Figure 2–4). If the heliport operator does not mark the TLOF, and/or intends that the
helicopter be able to land anywhere within the FATO, design the FATO outside the TLOF and any FATO
supporting structure, like the TLOF, to support the dynamic loads of the design helicopter. As an option,
increase the length and width or diameter of the LBA without a corresponding increase in the size of the
FATO.
(5) If the FATO is load-bearing, design the portion abutting the TLOF to be contiguous with the
TLOF, with the adjoining edges at the same elevation.
(6) If the FATO is unpaved, treat the FATO to prevent loose stones and any other flying debris
caused by rotor downwash.
(7) When the FATO or the LBA in which it is located is elevated 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above its
surroundings, part 1910.23 requires the provision of fall protection. The FAA recommends such
protection for all platforms elevated 30 inches (76 cm) or more. However, do not use permanent railings
or fences since they would be safety hazards during helicopter operations. As an option, install a safety
net meeting state and local regulations but not less than 5 feet (1.5 m) wide. Design the safety net to have
a load carrying capability of 25 lbs/sq ft (122 kg/sq m). Make sure the net, as illustrated in Figure 2–28,
21
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
does not project above the level of the TLOF. Fasten both the inside and outside edges of the safety net to
a solid structure. Construct nets of materials that are resistant to environmental effects.
c. Mobile objects within the FATO. The FATO design standards of this AC assume the TLOF and
FATO are closed to other aircraft if a helicopter or other mobile object is within the FATO or the safety
area.
d. Fixed objects within the FATO. Remove all fixed objects projecting above the FATO elevation
except for lighting fixtures, which may project a maximum of 2 inches (5 cm). See Figure 7–3. For
ground level heliports, remove all above-ground objects to the extent practicable.
e. FATO/FATO separation. If a heliport has more than one FATO, separate the perimeters of the
two FATOs so the respective safety areas do not overlap. This separation assumes simultaneous
approach/departure operations will not take place. If the heliport operator intends for the facility to
support simultaneous operations, provide a minimum 200 foot (61 m) separation.
f. FATO gradients. See paragraph 703 for FATO gradient standards.
209. Safety area. A safety area surrounds a FATO.
a. Safety area width. The standards for the width of the safety area are shown in Table 2-1. The
value is the same on all sides. The provision or absence of standard heliport markings affects the width
standards. As an option, design the safety area to extend into clear airspace.
b. Mobile objects within the safety area. The safety area design standards of this AC assume the
TLOF and FATO are closed to other aircraft if a helicopter or other mobile object is within the FATO or
the safety area.
c. Fixed objects within a safety area. Remove all fixed objects within a safety area projecting
above the FATO elevation except for lighting fixtures, which may project a maximum of 2 inches (5 cm).
See Figure 7–3. For ground level heliports, remove all above-ground objects to the extent practicable.
d. Safety area surface. The safety area need not be load bearing. Figure 2–6 depicts a safety area
extending over water. If possible, design the portion of the safety area abutting the FATO to be
contiguous with the FATO with the adjoining edges at the same elevation. This is needed to avoid the risk
of catching a helicopter skid or wheel. Clear the safety area of flammable materials and treat the area to
prevent loose stones and any other flying debris caused by rotor wash.
e. Safety area gradients. Find safety area gradient standards in Chapter 7.
210. VFR approach/departure paths. The purpose of approach/departure airspace, shown in Figure
2–7 and Figure 2–8 is to provide sufficient airspace clear of hazards to allow safe approaches to and
departures from the TLOF.
22
PIER TAXIWAY
FATO EXTENDS
BEYOND PIER
ON-SHORE
PARKING APRON
SAFETY ZONE
EXTENDS BEYOND PIER
TLOF
Note: Some markings omitted for clarity.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–6. Non-load-bearing FATO and Safety Area: General Aviation
23
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
a. Number of approach/departure paths. Align preferred approach/departure paths with the
predominant wind direction to avoid downwind operations and minimize crosswind operations. To
accomplish this, design the heliport with more than one approach/departure path. Base other
approach/departure paths on the assessment of the prevailing winds or, when this information is not
available, separate such flight paths and the preferred flight path by at least 135 degrees. See Figure 2–7,
Figure 2–8, and Figure 2–9. At a PPR heliport that has only one approach/departure path, the operator
makes sure all pilots using the facility are thoroughly knowledgeable with this and any other facility
limitations. A second flight path provides additional safety margin and operational flexibility. If it is not
feasible to provide complete coverage of wind through multiple approach/departure paths, operational
limitations maybe necessary under certain wind conditions. See paragraph 101.
b. VFR approach/departure and transitional surfaces. Figure 2–7 illustrates the
approach/departure and transitional surfaces.
(1) An approach/departure surface is centered on each approach/departure path. The
approach/departure path starts at the edge of the FATO and slopes upward at 8:1 (8 units horizontal in 1
unit vertical) for a distance of 4,000 feet (1,219 m) where the width is 500 feet (152 m) at a height of 500
feet (152 m) above the heliport elevation.
(2) The transitional surfaces start from the edges of the FATO parallel to the flight path center
line, and from the outer edges of the 8:1 approach/departure surface, and extend outwards at a slope of 2:1
(2 units horizontal in 1 unit vertical) for a distance of 250 feet (76 m) from the centerline. The transitional
surface does not apply to the FATO edge opposite the approach/departure surface.
(3) Make sure the approach/departure and transitional surfaces are free of penetrations unless an
FAA aeronautical study determines such penetrations not to be hazards. The FAA conducts such
aeronautical studies only at public heliports, heliports operated by a federal agency or the Department of
Defense, and private airports with FAA-approved approach procedures. Paragraph 111 provides
additional information on hazards to air navigation.
(4) At PPR facilities, an alternative to considering transitional surfaces is to increase the size of
the 8:1 approach/departure surface for a distance of 2,000 feet (610 m) as shown in Figure 2–9 and Figure
2–11. The lateral extensions on each side of the 8:1 approach/departure surface start at the width of the
FATO and are increased so at a distance of 2,000 feet (610 m) from the FATO they are 100 feet (30 m)
wide. Make sure obstacles do not penetrate into both Area A and Area B. Make sure obstacles do not
penetrate into Area A or Area B unless the FAA determines that the penetration is not a hazard. Mark or
light all such penetrations. See paragraph 111 for more information on hazard determinations.
c. Curved VFR approach/departure paths. As an option, include one curve in VFR
approach/departure paths. As an option, design these paths to use the airspace above public lands, such as
freeways or rivers. When including a curved portion in the approach/departure path, make sure the sum of
the radius of the arc defining the center line and the length of the straight portion originating at the FATO
is not less than 1,886 feet (575 m). Design the approach/departure path so the minimum radius of the
curve is 886 feet (270 m) and the curve follows a 1,000 feet (305 m) straight section. Design the
approach/departure path so the combined length of the center line of the curved portion and the straight
portion is 4,000 feet (1,219 m). See Figure 2–8. Figure 2–10 shows a curved approach/departure path for
an 8:1 approach/departure surface.
24
FATO
PREDOMINATE WIND DIRECTION
SURFACE BASED UPON THE
PREFERRED APPROACH/DEPARTURE
APPROACH/
DEPARTURE
SURFACE
(TYPICAL)
SEE DETAIL
OPPOSITE
HELIPORT
135°
SHADED AREA
TO HAVE SAME
CHARACTERISTICS
AS FATO
250 FT [76 M]
500 FT [152 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
4,000 FT
[1,219 M]
LEGEND
250 FT
[76 M]
FATO
2:1 Transitional Surface
8:1 Approach/Departure
Surface
500 FT
[152 M]
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–7. VFR Heliport Approach/Departure and Transitional Surfaces: General Aviation
25
500 FT
[152 M]
1,000 FT [305 M]
R = 886 FT
[270 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
R = 1,886 FT [575 M]
Legend:
8:1 Approach/Departure
Surface
2:1 Transitional Surface
Notes:
1. Use any combination of straight portions and one curved portion using the following formula:
S + R 1,886 ft [575 m] and R 886 ft [270 m], where S is the length of the straight portion(s) and R is the
radius of the turn. Note that any combination 1,886 ft [575 m] will work.
2. The minimum total length of the centerline of the straight and curved portion is 4,000 ft [1,219 m].
3. Helicopter take-off performance may be reduced in a curve. Consider a straight portion along the
take-off climb surface prior to the start of the curve to allow for acceleration.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 2–8. Curved Approach/Departure: General Aviation
26
P
E
8:
1
AP
P
ROAC
H
D/ E
ART
U
RE
S
U
R
FAC
Allow penetration(s) of Area A or Area B area but not both
if marked or lighted and if not considered a hazard
100 FT [30 M]
A
FATO
500 FT APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE 8:1 [152 M]
B 100 FT [30 M] 2,000 FT [610 M]
4,000 FT [1,219 M]
PLAN VIEW
2,000 FT [610 M]
500 FT
[ 152 M]
FATO
250 FT [76 M] ELEVATION VIEW
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–9. VFR PPR Heliport Lateral Extension
of the 8:1 Approach / Departure Surface: General Aviation
27
2,000 FT [610 M]
A
SEE NOTE 2 100 FT [30 M]
8:1 APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE
1,000 FT [305 M]
B
500 FT [153 M] 886 FT [272 M] RADIUS
A
SEE NOTE 2
100 FT [30 M]
B
1886 FT [575 M]
RADIUS
8:1 APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE
500 FT [153 M] Notes:
1. The approach surface may consist of one curved portion preceded and/or followed by one straight portion
such that: S + R 1,886 ft [575 m] and R 886 ft [270 m], where S is the length of the straight portion(s)
and R is the radius of the turn. Note that any combination 1,886 ft [575 m] will work.
2. The minimum total length of the centerline of the straight and curved portions is 4,000 ft [1,219 m].
3. Helicopter take-off performance may be reduced in a curve. Consider a straight portion along the
take-off climb surface prior to the start of the curve to allow for acceleration.
4. Allow penetration(s) of Are a A or Area B area but not both if marked or lighted and if not considered a hazard.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 2–10. VFR PPR Heliport Lateral Extension
of the Curved 8:1 Approach / Departure Surface: General Aviation
28
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
d. Flight path alignment guidance. As an option, use flight path alignment markings and/or flight
path alignment lights (see paragraphs 215 and 216) where it is desirable and practicable to indicate
available approach and/or departure flight path direction(s). See Figure 2–11.
e. Periodic review of obstructions. Vigilant heliport operators reexamine obstacles in the vicinity
of approach/departure paths on at least an annual basis. This reexamination includes an appraisal of the
growth of trees near approach and departure paths. Paragraph 111 provides additional information on
hazards to air navigation. Pay particular attention to obstacles that need to be marked or lighted. It may be
helpful to maintain a list of the GPS coordinates and the peak elevation of obstacles.
211. Heliport protection zone (HPZ). The FAA recommends the establishment of an HPZ for each
approach/departure surface. The HPZ is the area under the 8:1 approach/departure surface starting at the
FATO perimeter and extending out for a distance of 280 feet (85.3 m), as illustrated in Figure 2–125. The
HPZ is intended to enhance the protection of people and property on the ground. This is achieved through
heliport owner control over the HPZ. Such control includes clearing HPZ areas (and maintaining them
clear) of incompatible objects and activities. The FAA discourages residences and places of public
assembly in an HPZ. (Churches, schools, hospitals, office buildings, shopping centers, and other uses
with similar concentrations of persons typify places of public assembly.) Do not locate hazardous
materials, including fuel, in the HPZ.
212. Wind cone.
a. Specification. Use a wind cone conforming to AC 150/5345-27, Specification for Wind Cone
Assemblies, to show the direction and magnitude of the wind. Use a color that provides the best possible
color contrast to its background.
b. Wind cone location. Locate the wind cone so it provides the pilot with valid wind direction and
speed information in the vicinity of the heliport under all wind conditions.
(1) At many landing sites, there may be no single, ideal location for the wind cone. At other sites,
it may not be possible to site a wind cone at the ideal location. In such cases, install more than one wind
cone in order to provide the pilot with all the wind information needed for safe operations.
(2) Place the wind cone so a pilot on the approach path can see it clearly when the helicopter is
500 feet (150 m) from the TLOF.
(3) Place the wind cone so pilots can see it from the TLOF.
(4) To avoid presenting an obstruction hazard, locate the wind cone(s) outside the safety area,
and so it does not penetrate the approach/departure or transitional surfaces.
c. Wind cone lighting. At a heliport intended for night operations, illuminate the wind cone, either
internally or externally, to ensure it is clearly visible.
213. Taxiways and taxi routes. Taxiways and taxi routes provide for the movement of helicopters
from one part of a landing facility to another. They provide a connecting path between the FATO and a
parking area. They also provide a maneuvering aisle within the parking area. A taxi route includes the
taxiway plus the appropriate clearances needed on both sides. The relationship between a taxiway and a
taxi route is illustrated in Figure 2–13, Figure 2–14, and Figure 2–15. At heliports with no parking or
refueling area outside the TLOF(s), it is not necessary to provide a taxi route or taxiway.
29
BIDIRECTIONAL AND SINGLE FLIGHT PATHS
SAFETY AREA
SINGLE FLIGHT
PATH MARKING
FATO
BIDIRECTIONAL
FLIGHT PATH MARKING
TLOF
SEE DETAIL A
10 FT [3.0 M] 5 FT [1.5 M] MINIMUM
1.5 FT
[0.46 M]
LIGHTS (3 MINIMUM) 5 FT 5 – 10 FT [1.5 M] [1.5 – 3.0 M] SPACING
DETAIL A FLIGHT PATH ALIGNMENT MARKING DETAIL
Notes (arrow): Notes (lights):
1. Arrowheads have constant 1. Light type: omnidirectional green lights
dimensions
2. If necessary, locate lights outside arrow
2. If necessary, adjust stroke length to match length
available (Minimum length: 10 ft [3 m])
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 2–11. Flight Path Alignment Marking and Lights: General Aviation
30
8:1 APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
HELIPORT
PROTECTION ZONE
280 FT [85 M]
AT GROUND LEVEL
8:1 APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
SAFETY AREA
FATO
TLOF
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
FATO
HELIPORT
PROTECTION ZONE
280 FT [85 M]
AT GROUND LEVEL
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–12. Heliport Protection Zone: General Aviation
31
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
PAVED TAXIWAY WIDTH
NOT LESS THAN TWO TIMES
THE UNDERCARRIAGE WIDTH
OF THE DESIGN HELICOPTER
TAXIWAY EDGE MARKING:
TWO CONTINUOUS 6 IN [15 CM]
YELLOW LINES SPACED 6 IN [15 CM] APART
TAXI ROUTE WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2 FOR
TAXIWAY/TAXI ROUTE WIDTH
TAXIWAY CENTERLINE MARKING:
CONTINUOUS 6 IN [15 CM] YELLOW LINE
Figure 2–13. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship – Paved Taxiway: General Aviation
32
TAXIWAY RAISED EDGE MARKERS
SPACING: 15 FT [4.6 M] ON STRAIGHT SEGMENTS
10 FT [3.0 M] ON CURVED SEGMENTS
UNPAVED TAXIWAY WIDTH
1 RD BUT NOT MORE
THAN 35 FT [10.7 M]
TAXIWAY/TAXI
ROUTE WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
4 IN [10 CM] DIA X
6 IN [15 CM] HIGH MAX
CYLINDER ON A
2 IN [5 CM] SUPPORT 12 IN [30 CM] MIN DIA DISC
AT GRADE OR
NOT TO EXCEED 3 IN [7 CM]
TAXIWAY RAISED EDGE
MARKER DETAIL
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–14. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship –
Unpaved Taxiway with Raised Edge Markers: General Aviation
33
TAXIWAY FLUSH IN-GROUND EDGE MARKERS
5 FT X 1 FT [1.5 M X 30 CM]
SPACING: 15 FT [4.6 M] ON STRAIGHT SEGMENTS
10 FT [3.0 M] ON CURVED SEGMENTS
UNPAVED TAXIWAY WIDTH
2X UNDERCARRIAGE WIDTH
TAXIWAY/TAXI OF THE DESIGN HELICOPTER
ROUTE WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 2–15. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship –
Unpaved Taxiway with Flush Edge Markers: General Aviation
34
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
a. Taxiway/taxi route widths. The dimensions of taxiways and taxi routes are a function of
helicopter size, taxiway/taxi route marking, and type of taxi operations (ground taxi versus hover taxi).
These dimensions are defined in Table 2-2. Normally, the requirement for hover taxi dictates the
taxiway/taxi route widths. However, when the fleet comprises a combination of large ground taxiing
helicopters and smaller air taxiing helicopters, the larger aircraft may dictate the taxiway/taxi route
widths. If wheel-equipped helicopters taxi with wheels not touching the surface, design the facility with
hover taxiway widths rather than ground taxiway widths. Where the visibility of the centerline marking
cannot be guaranteed at all times, such as locations where snow or dust commonly obscure the centerline
marking and it is not practical to remove it, determine the minimum taxiway/taxi route dimensions as if
there was no centerline marking.
b. Surfaces. For ground taxiways, provide a portland cement concrete, asphalt, or stabilized
surfaces, such as turf, in accordance with the standards of items P-217 of AC 150/5370-10. For unpaved
portions of taxiways and taxi routes, provide a turf cover or treat the surface in some way to prevent dirt
and debris from being raised by a taxiing helicopter’s rotor wash.
c. Gradients. Taxiway and taxi route gradient standards are defined in Chapter 7.
214. Helicopter parking. If more than one helicopter at a time is expected at a heliport, design the
facility with an area designated for parking helicopters. The size of this area depends on the number and
size of specific helicopters to be accommodated. It is not necessary that every parking position
accommodate the design helicopter. Construct individual parking positions to accommodate the helicopter
size and weights expected to use the parking position at the facility. However, use the design helicopter to
determine the separation between parking positions and taxi routes. Use the larger helicopter to determine
the separation between parking positions intended for helicopters of different sizes. Build the parking
positions to support the static loads of the helicopter intended to use the parking area. Design parking
areas as one large, paved, apron or as individual, paved, parking positions. Ground taxi turns of wheeled
helicopters are significantly larger than a hover turn. Consider the turn radius of helicopters when
designing taxi intersections and parking positions for wheeled helicopters. Design heliport parking areas
so helicopters will be parked in an orientation that keeps the “avoid areas” around the tail rotors clear of
passenger walkways. See Figure 2–16, Figure 2–17, and Figure 2–19.
a. Location. Do not locate aircraft parking areas under an approach/departure surface. However, as
an option, allow aircraft parking areas under the transitional surfaces.
(1) For “turn around” parking positions, locate the parking position to provide a minimum
distance between the tail rotor circle and any object, building, safety area, or other parking position. The
minimum distance is 10 feet (3 m) for ground taxi operations and the greater of 10 feet (3 m) or 1
/3 RD for
hover taxi operations. See Figure 2–19.
(2) For “taxi-through” and “back-out” parking positions, locate the parking position to provide a
minimum distance between the main rotor circle and any object, building, safety area, or other parking
position. The minimum distance is 10 feet (3 m) for ground taxi operations and the greater of 10 feet (3
m) or 1
/3 RD for hover taxi operations. See Figure 2–20.
(3) Locate the parking position to provide a minimum distance between the main rotor circle and
the edge of any taxi route. Design parking positions such that the helicopter taxis through, turns around,
or backs out to depart. The minimum distance is 1
/3 RD for “turn around” and “taxi through” parking
areas, and ½ RD for “back-out” parking areas. See Figure 2–16, Figure 2–17, and Figure 2–18.
35
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Table 2-2. Taxiway/Taxi Route Dimensions – General Aviation Heliports
Taxiway
(TW)
Type
Minimum
Width of
Paved Area
Centerline
Marking
Type
TW Edge
Marking
Type
Lateral Separation Between TW
Edge Markings
Total Taxi
Route Width
Ground
Taxiway
2 x UC Painted
Painted 2 x UC
1 ½ RD
Elevated 1 RD but not greater than 35 ft
(10.7 m)
Unpaved but
stabilized for
ground taxi
None
Flush 2 x UC
Elevated 1 RD but not greater than 35 ft
(10.7 m)
Hover
Taxiway
2 x UC Painted Painted 2 x UC
2 RD
Unpaved None Elevated
or Flush
1 RD but not greater than 35 ft
(10.7 m)
RD: rotor diameter of the design helicopter
TW: taxiway
UC: undercarriage length or width (whichever is greater) of the design helicopter
36
TLOF EDGE MARKING FATO EDGE MARKING
APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE
APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE
TAXI ROUTE WIDTH SAFETY AREA
SEE TABLE 2-2
SHOULDER LINE
MARKING
TAXI ROUTE
WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
TAXI ROUTE
SEE
WIDTH
NOTE 3 SEE TABLE 2-2
1
3 RD
1 RD CIRCLE PARKING POSITION
CENTERLINE (SOLID) Notes:
1. Several markings (such as Parking Position Identifier and passenger walkways) have been omitted
for clarity.
2. Design the parking positions so that the helicopters exit taxiing forward.
3. Minimum clearance between the arcs generated by the main rotor:
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger helicopter, but not less than 10 ft [3 m]
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–16. Parking Area Design – “Taxi-through” Parking Positions: General Aviation
37
TAIL ROTOR 1
3 RD PARKING POSITION
ARC CENTERLINE (SOLID)
1 RD CIRCLE
TAXI ROUTE
WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
SEE
NOTE 2
1
3 RD
TAXI ROUTE WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
TDPC MARKING
SAFETY AREA
APPROACH/DEPARTURE APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE SURFACE
FATO EDGE MARKING TLOF EDGE MARKING
Notes:
1. Several markings (such as Parking Position Identifier and passenger walkways) have been omitted for
clarity.
2. Minimum clearance between the tail rotor arcs :
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger helicopter, but not less than 10 ft [3 m].
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 2–17. Parking Area Design – “Turn-around” Parking Positions: General Aviation
38
TAIL ROTOR
ARC
1
2 RD SHOULDER LINE
MARKING
1 RD CIRCLE
TAXI ROUTE
WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
SEE
NOTE 2
PARKING POSITION
CENTERLINE (SOLID)
TAXI ROUTE WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
SAFETY AREA
APPROACH/DEPARTURE APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE SURFACE
FATO EDGE MARKING TLOF EDGE MARKING
Notes:
1. Several markings (such as Parking Position Identifier and passenger walkways) have been omitted for
clarity.
2. Minimum clearance between the tail rotor arcs :
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger helicopter, but not less than 10 ft [3 m].
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–18. Parking Area Design – “Back-out” Parking Positions: General Aviation
39
1 R
D
P A R K I N G C I R C
L
E
R
O T O R L I A T
A R C
SECURITY FENCE
PASSENGER WALKWAY
SEE NOTE 3
SEE NOTE 3
CAUTION SIGN
AT GATE SEE NOTE 4
LARGEST D THE
PARKING POSITION
WILL ACCOMMODATE
PARKING POSITION
IDENTIFIER
(LETTER OR NUMBER)
TDPC MARKING
Notes:
1. Base the design of these parking positions on the 3. Minimum clearance between the tail rotor
understanding that the helicopter may pivot about the arc and fixed objects:
mast prior to exiting the parking position.
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD, but not less
than 10 ft [3 m] 2. This marking scheme is for paved areas only.  Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m] For unpaved parking areas, all that is required is
the RD marking. 4. Minimum Distance between tail rotor arcs is 1
3 RD.
If parking areas are different sizes, 1
3 RD of the larger
design helicopter.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 2–19. “Turn-around” Parking Position Marking: General Aviation
40
1 R
D
P A R K I N G
C I R
C
L
E
SECURITY FENCE
SEE NOTE 2
PASSENGER WALKWAY
SEE NOTE 2
(BACK-OUT ONLY)
SEE NOTE 3
CAUTION SIGN
AT GATE
LARGEST D THE
PARKING POSITION
WILL ACCOMMODATE
PARKING POSITION
IDENTIFIER
(LETTER OR NUMBER)
SHOULDER
MARKING
Notes:
1. This marking scheme is for paved areas only. 3. Minimum distance between 1 RD parking
For unpaved parking areas, all that is required is circles is 1
3 RD. If parking areas are different the RD marking. sizes, 1
3 RD of the larger design helicopter.
2. Minimum clearance between 1 RD
parking circle and fixed objects:
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD but not less
than 10 ft [3 m]
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–20. “Taxi-through” and “Back-out” Parking Position Marking: General Aviation
41
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
b. Size. Parking position sizes are dependent upon the helicopter size. The clearance between
parking positions are dependent upon the type of taxi operations (ground taxi or hover taxi) and the
intended paths for maneuvering in and out of the parking position. The more demanding requirement will
dictate what is required at a particular site. Usually, the parking area requirements for skid-equipped
helicopters will be the most demanding. However, when the largest helicopter is a very large, wheeled
aircraft (for example, the S-61), and the skid-equipped helicopters are all much smaller, the parking
requirements for wheeled helicopters may be the most demanding. If wheel-equipped helicopters taxi
with wheels not touching the surface, design parking areas based on hover taxi operations rather than
ground taxi operations.
(1) If all parking positions are the same size, design them to accommodate the largest helicopter
that will park at the heliport.
(2) When there is more than one parking position, as an option design the facility with parking
positions of various sizes with at least one position that will accommodate the largest helicopter that will
park at the heliport. Design other parking positions to be smaller, for the size of the individual or range of
individual helicopters parking at that position. Figure 2–21 provides guidance on parking position
identification, size, and weight limitations.
(3) “Taxi-through” parking positions are illustrated in Figure 2–16. When using this design for
parking positions, the heliport owner and operator take steps to ensure all pilots are informed that “turnaround”
or “back-up” departures from the parking position are not permitted.
(4) “Turn-around” parking positions are illustrated in Figure 2–17.
(5) “Back-out” parking positions are illustrated in Figure 2–18. When using this design for
parking positions, design the adjacent taxiway to accommodate hover taxi operations so the width of the
taxiway will be adequate to support “back-out” operations.
c. Parking pads. When partially paving a parking area, design the smallest dimension of the paved
parking pad to be a minimum of two times the maximum dimension (length or width, whichever is
greater) of the undercarriage or the RD, whichever is less, of the largest helicopter that will use the
parking position. Place the parking pad in the center of the parking position circle.
d. Walkways. At parking positions, provide marked walkways where practicable. Design the
pavement to drain away from walkways.
e. Fueling. Design the facility to allow fueling with the use of a fuel truck or a specific fueling area
with stationary fuel tanks.
(1) Various federal, state, and local requirements for petroleum handling facilities apply to
systems for storing and dispensing fuel. Guidance is found in AC 150/5230-4, Aircraft Fuel Storage,
Handling, and Dispensing on Airports. Additional information may be found in various National Fire
Protection Association (NFPA) publications. For more reference material, see Appendix D.
42
TDPC MARKING
(USE WITH TURN-AROUND
PARKING ONLY)
INNER DIAMETER =
1
2 D of design helicopter
18 IN. [45.7 CM] WIDE
YELLOW STRIPE
CENTERLINE
12 IN [30 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
10 FT [3 M]
OUTER DIAMETER CIRCLE
6 IN [15 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
6 IN [15 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
PASSENGER WALKWAY
IN BLACK AND WHITE PAINT
SHOULDER LINE
(USE WITH TAXI-THROUGH
AND BACK-OUT PARKING ONLY)
6 IN [15 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
1 RD CIRCLE
6 IN [15 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
PARKING POSITION
WEIGHT LIMITATION
(IF APPLICABLE)
IN 3 FT [0.9 M] HIGH
YELLOW CHARACTERS
PARKING POSITION IDENTIFIER
(LETTER OR NUMBER)
IN 3 FT [0.9 M] HIGH
YELLOW CHARACTERS
LARGEST D THE PARKING
POSITION WILL ACCOMMODATE
IN 3 FT [0.9 M] HIGH
YELLOW CHARACTERS
Note: This marking scheme is for paved areas only. For an unpaved parking area, all that is
required is the RD marking.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–21. Parking Position Identification, Size, and Weight Limitations: General Aviation
43
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
(2) Do not locate fueling equipment in the TLOF, FATO, or safety area. Design and mark
separate fueling locations to minimize the potential for helicopters to collide with the dispensing
equipment. Design fueling areas so there is no object tall enough to be hit by the main or tail rotor blades
within a distance of RD from the center point of the position where the helicopter would be fueled
(providing ½ RD clearance from the rotor tips). If this is not practical at an existing facility, install long
fuel hoses.
(3) Lighting. Light the fueling area if night fueling operations are contemplated. Ensure any light
poles do not constitute an obstruction hazard.
f. Tiedowns. Install recessed tiedowns to accommodate extended or overnight parking of based or
transient helicopters. Recess any tiedowns so they will not be a hazard to helicopters. Ensure any
depression associated with the tiedowns is of a diameter not greater than ½ the width of the smallest
helicopter landing wheel or landing skid anticipated to be operated on the heliport surface. In addition,
provide storage for tiedown chocks, chains, cables and ropes off the heliport surface to avoid fouling
landing gear. Find guidance on recessed tiedowns in AC 20-35, Tiedown Sense.
215. Heliport markers and markings. Markers and/or surface markings identify the facility as a
heliport. Use paint or preformed materials for surface markings. (See AC 150/5370-10, Item P-620, for
specifications for paint and preformed material.). As options, use reflective paint and reflective markers,
though overuse of reflective material can be blinding to a pilot using landing lights. As an option, outline
lines/markings with a 6-inch (15 cm) wide line of a contrasting color to enhance conspicuity. Place
markings that define the edges of a TLOF, FATO, taxiway or apron within the limits of those areas. Use
the following markers and markings.
a. Heliport identification marking. The identification marking identifies the location as a heliport,
marks the TLOF and provides visual cues to the pilot.
(1) Standard heliport identification symbol. Mark the TLOF with a white “H” marking. The
“H” has a minimum height of the lesser of 0.3 D or 10 feet (3 m). Locate the “H” in the center of the
TLOF and orient it on the axis of the preferred approach/departure path. Place a one-foot wide bar under
the “H” when it is necessary to distinguish the preferred approach/departure direction. The proportions
and layout of the letter “H” are illustrated in Figure 2–23. For a height of “H” less than 10 feet (3 m),
reduce other dimensions proportionately.
(2) Nonstandard heliport identification marking. As an option use a distinctive marking, such
as a company logo, to identify the facility as a PPR heliport. However, a nonstandard marking does not
necessarily provide the pilot with the same degree of visual cueing as the standard heliport identification
symbol. To compensate, increase the size of the safety area when the standard heliport identification
symbol “H” is not used. See Table 2-1.
b. TLOF markings.
(1) TLOF perimeter marking. Define the TLOF perimeter with markers and/or lines. If the
heliport operator does not mark the TLOF, increase the size of the safety area as described in paragraph
209.a and Table 2-1.
(a) Paved TLOFs. Define the perimeter of a paved or hard surfaced TLOF with a
continuous, 12-inch-wide (30 cm), white line. See Figure 2–25.
(b) Unpaved TLOFs. Define the perimeter of an unpaved TLOF with a series of 12-inchwide
(30 cm), flush, in-ground markers, each approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) in length with end-to-end
spacing of not more than 6 inches (15 cm). See Figure 2–25.
(2) Touchdown/positioning circle (TDPC) marking. A TDPC marking provides guidance to
allow a pilot to touch down in a specific position on paved surfaces. When the pilot’s seat is over the
44
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
marking, the undercarriage will be inside the LBA, and all parts of the helicopter will be clear of any
obstacle by a safe margin. A TDPC marking is a yellow circle with an inner diameter of ½ D and a line
width of 18 in (46 m). Locate a TDPC marking in the center of a TLOF. (See Figure 2–23). As an option,
at PPR heliports where the TLOF width is less than 16 feet (5 m), omit the TDPC marking.
(3) TLOF size and weight limitations. Mark the TLOF to indicate the length and weight of the
largest helicopter it will accommodate, as shown in Figure 2–23. Place these markings in a box in the
lower right-hand corner of a rectangular TLOF, or on the right-hand side of the “H” of a circular TLOF,
when viewed from the preferred approach direction. The box is 5 feet (1.5 m) square. The numbers are 18
inches (46 cm) high. (See Figure C–1). If necessary, allow this marking to interrupt the TDPC marking.
(See Figure 2–23 and Figure C–1.) The numbers are black with a white background. This marking is
optional at a TLOF with a turf surface. This marking is also optional at PPR heliports, since the operator
ensures all pilots using the facility are thoroughly knowledgeable with this and any other facility
limitations.
(a) TLOF size limitation. This number is the length (D) of the largest helicopter the TLOF
will accommodate, as shown in Figure 2–23. The marking consists of the letter “D” followed by the
dimension in feet. Do not use metric equivalents for this purpose. Center this marking in the lower section
of the TLOF size/weight limitation box.
(b) TLOF weight limitations. If a TLOF has limited weight-carrying capability, mark it
with the maximum takeoff weight of the design helicopter, in units of thousands of pounds, as shown in
Figure 2–23. Do not use metric equivalents for this purpose. Center this marking in the upper section of a
TLOF size/weight limitation box. If the TLOF does not have a weight limit, add a diagonal line,
extending from the lower left hand corner to the upper right hand corner, to the upper section of the TLOF
size/weight limitation box. See Figure 2–23.
c. Extended pavement/structure markings. As an option, increase the pavement or structure
without a corresponding increase in the length and width or diameter of the FATO to accommodate
pedestrians and/or support operations. Whether or not this increased area is part of the LBA, mark the
area outside the TLOF with 12-inch-wide (30 cm) diagonal black and white stripes. See Figure 2–24 for
marking details.
d. FATO markings.
(1) FATO perimeter marking. Define the perimeter of a load-bearing FATO with markers
and/or lines. Do not mark the FATO perimeter if any portion of the FATO is not a load-bearing surface.
In such cases, mark the perimeter of the LBA (see paragraph (b) below).
(a) Paved FATOs. Define the perimeter of a paved load-bearing FATO with a 12-inch-wide
(30 cm) dashed white line. Define the corners of the FATO. The perimeter marking segments are
approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) in length, and with end-to-end spacing of approximately 5 feet (1.5 m). See
Figure 2–25.
(b) Unpaved FATOs. Define the perimeter of an unpaved load-bearing FATO with 12-inchwide
(30 cm), flush, in-ground markers. Define the corners of the FATO. The rest of the perimeter
markers are approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) in length, and have end-to-end spacing of approximately 5 feet
(1.5 m). See Figure 2–26.
45
TLOF PERIMETER MARKING
12 IN [30 CM] WIDE
WHITE LINE
TOUCHDOWN POSITION CIRCLE
INNER DIAMETER – 1
2 D OF
DESIGN HELICOPTER
18 IN [46 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
SEE DETAIL A
OF FIGURE 2-23
SEE DETAIL B
OF FIGURE 2-23
MARKING EXAMPLE 1 ­
TLOF SIZE EQUALS 1 RD OF DESIGN HELICOPTER
TLOF PERIMETER
MARKING
12 IN [30 CM] WIDE
WHITE LINE
SEE DETAIL A
OF FIGURE 2-23
TLOF PERIMETER
MARKING
12 IN [30 CM] WIDE
WHITE LINE
SEE DETAIL A
OF FIGURE 2-23
TOUCHDOWN POSITION
CIRCLE INNER DIAMETER ­
1
2 D OF DESIGN HELICOPTER
18 IN [46 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
SEE DETAIL B
OF FIGURE 2-23
MARKING DETAIL – EXAMPLE 2
TOUCHDOWN POSITION
CIRCLE INNER DIAMETER ­
1
2 D OF DESIGN HELICOPTER
18 IN [46 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
SEE DETAIL B
OF FIGURE 2-23
MARKING DETAIL – EXAMPLE 3
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 2–22. Standard and Alternate TLOF Marking:
General Aviation
46
ALTERNATE MARKING WITH
Notes:
See Appendix C for the form and proportion of the numbers used in the TLOF Size and
“4” indicates the maximum takeoff weight (4,000 lbs) of the TLOF design helicopter,
“D40” indicates the overall length of the largest helicopter (40 ft) for which the TLOF is
1.
3.
4.
DETAIL B
Weight Limitation Box.
designed.
in units of thousands of pounds.
NO WEIGHT RESTRICTIONS
TLOF SIZE/WEIGHT LIMITATION “BOX”
NO WEIGHT LIMIT
DETAIL A
HELIPORT IDENTIFICATION SYMBOL
PAINT
OF “H” WHITE
INTERIOR
C E
B
F
5 IN
[12.7 CM]
A
SEE NOTES 2, 3 AND 4
SEE NOTES 2, 3 AND 4
5 FT [1.5 M]
SQUARE
A 10′-0″
[3 M]
B 6′-8″
[1.8 M]
C 1′-0″
[30 CM]
E 0′-3″
[7 CM]
F 2′-0″
[61 CM]
STANDARD ALTERNATE
“H” SIZE
DIMENSION
2. Characters within the TLOF Size and Weight Limitation Box are black on a
white background.
TLOF MARKING TLOF MARKING
0.3D
0.66A
0.1A
0.02A
0.2A
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–23. Standard Heliport Identification Symbol,
TLOF Size and Weight Limitations: General Aviation
47
EXTENDED PAVEMENT/STRUCTURE TLOF EDGE MARKING
FLUSH TLOF EDGE LIGHTS
Notes:
1. Extended pavement/structure markings begin flush with TLOF edge
markings and end at the edge of the extended pavement/structure.
2. Extended pavement/structure markings are 12 in [30 cm]
wide black and white stripes on a 45° angle.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 2–24. Extended Pavement / Structure Marking: General Aviation
48
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
DETAIL A FATO MARKING DETAIL
5 FT [1.5 M] 5 FT [1.5 M] MIN
6 FT [2 M] MAX
Notes:
1. Mark the perimeter of the TLOF and FATO.
2.
3.
PAINTED TLOF EDGE MARKING
FATO EDGE MARKING
APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
SAFETY AREA
SEE NOTES 3 & 4 AND DETAIL A
APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
SEE NOTE 2
Define the perimeter of a paved or hard surfaced TLOF with a continuous
12 in [30 cm] white line.
Define paved FATO perimeters with a 12 in [30 cm] wide dashed line per Detail A.
TDPC
MARKING
4.
5. See Figure 2-23 for ” H”, Touchdown/Position, Overall Length and Weight Limitation box
dimensions.
Define unpaved FATO perimeters with flush in-ground markers per Detail A.
Figure 2–25. Paved TLOF/Paved FATO –
Paved TLOF/ Unpaved FATO – Marking: General Aviation
49
1FT [30 CM]
DETAIL A
5 FT [1.5 M] MIN
6 FT [2 M] MAX
DETAIL B
Notes:
APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
IN GROUND FATO EDGE MARKING
SEE NOTE 3 AND DETAIL B
UNPAVED TLOF EDGE MARKING
SEE NOTE 2 AND DETAIL A
UNPAVED FATO
SAFETY AREA
APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
5 FT [1.5 M]
TDPC
MARKING
0 FT [0 M] MIN
6 IN [30 CM] MAX
TLOF FLUSH IN-GROUND MARKING DETAIL
5 FT [1.5 M]
1 FT [30 CM]
FATO FLUSH IN-GROUND MARKING DETAIL
1. Mark the perimeter of the TLOF and FATO.
2. Define an unpaved TLOF perimeter with flush in-ground markers per Detail A.
3. Define an unpaved FATO perimeter with flush in-ground markers per Detail B.
4. See Figure 2-23 for “H”, Touchdown/Position, Overall Length and Weight Limitation box
dimensions.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 2–26. Unpaved TLOF/Unpaved FATO – Marking: General Aviation
50
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
e. Flight path alignment guidance marking. An optional flight path alignment guidance marking
consists of one or more arrows to indicate the preferred approach/departure direction(s). Mark it on the
TLOF, FATO and/or safety area surface as shown in Figure 2–11. The shaft of the each arrow is 18
inches (50 cm) in width and at least 10 feet (3 m) in length. Use a color which provides good contrast
against the background color of the surface. An arrow pointing toward the center of the TLOF depicts an
approach direction. An arrow pointing away from the center of the TLOF depicts a departure direction. In
the case of a flight path limited to a single approach direction or a single departure path, the arrow
marking is unidirectional. In the case of a heliport with only a bidirectional approach/takeoff flight path
available, the arrow marking is bidirectional.
f. Taxiway and taxi route markings.
(1) Paved taxiway markings. Mark the centerline of a paved taxiway with a continuous 6-inch
(15 cm) yellow line. As an option, mark both edges of the paved portion of the taxiway with two
continuous 6-inch (15 cm) wide yellow lines spaced 6 inches (15 cm) apart. Figure 2–13 illustrates
taxiway centerline and edge markings.
(2) Unpaved taxiway markings. Use either raised or in-ground flush edge markers to provide
strong visual cues to pilots. Space them longitudinally at approximately 15-foot (5 m) intervals on straight
segments and at approximately 10-foot (3 m) intervals on curved segments. Figure 2–14 and Figure 2–15
illustrate taxiway edge markings.
(a) Raised-edge markers are blue, 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter, and 8 inches (20 cm) high,
as illustrated in Figure 2–14.
(b) In-ground, flush edge markers are yellow, 12 inches (30 cm) wide, and approximately
5 feet (1.5 m) long.
(3) Raised edge markers in grassy areas. Tall grass sometimes obscures raised edge markers
Address this issue by using 12-inch (30 cm) diameter solid material disks around the poles supporting the
raised markers.
(4) Taxiway to parking position transition requirements. For paved taxiways and parking
areas, taxiway centerline markings continue into parking positions and become the parking position
centerlines.
g. Helicopter parking position markings. Helicopter parking positions have the following
markings:
(1) Paved parking position identifications. Mark parking position identifications (numbers or
letters) if there is more than one parking position. These markings are yellow characters 36 inches
(91 cm) high. See Figure 2–21 and Figure C–1.
(2) Rotor diameter circle. Define the circle of the RD of the largest helicopter that will park at
that position with a 6-inch (15 cm) wide, solid yellow line with an outside diameter of RD. In paved
areas, this is a painted line (see Figure 2–21). In unpaved areas, use a series of flush markers, 6 inches
(15 cm) in width, a maximum of 5 feet (1.5 m) in length, and with end-to-end spacing of approximately 5
feet (1.5 m).
(3) Touchdown/positioning circle (TDPC) marking. An optional TDPC marking provides
guidance to allow a pilot to touch down in a specific position on paved surfaces. When the pilot’s seat is
over the marking, the undercarriage will be inside the LBA, and all parts of the helicopter will be clear of
any obstacle by a safe margin. A TDPC marking is a yellow circle with an inner diameter of ½ D and a
line width of 18 in (46 cm). Locate a TDPC marking in the center of a parking area. See Figure 2–21 and
Figure 2–25. The FAA recommends a TDPC marking for “turn-around” parking areas.
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
(4) Maximum length marking. This marking on paved surfaces indicates the D of the largest
helicopter that the position is designed to accommodate (for example, 49). This marking consists of
yellow characters at least 36 inches (91 cm) high. See Figure 2–21 and Figure C–1.
(5) Parking position weight limit. If a paved parking position has a weight limitation, mark it in
units of 1,000 lbs as illustrated in Figure 2–21. (A 4 indicates a weight-carrying capability of up to 4,000
lbs. Do not use metric equivalents for this purpose.) This marking consists of yellow characters 36 inches
(91 cm) high. When necessary to minimize the possibility of being misread, place a bar under the number.
See Figure 2–21, Figure 2–25, and Figure C–1.
(6) Shoulder line markings. As an option, use shoulder line markings for paved parking areas
(Figure 2–21) to ensure safe rotor clearance. Locate a 6-inch (15 cm) wide solid yellow shoulder line,
perpendicular to the centerline and extending to the RD marking, so it is under the pilot’s shoulder such
that the main rotor of the largest helicopter the position will accommodate will be entirely within the rotor
diameter parking circle (see Figure 2–21). Use ¼ D from the center of parking area to define the location
of shoulder line. The FAA recommends a shoulder line marking for “taxi-through” and “back-out”
parking areas.
h. Walkways. Figure 2–21 illustrates one marking scheme.
i. Closed heliport. Obliterate all markings of a permanently closed heliport, FATO, or TLOF. If it
is impractical to obliterate markings, place a yellow “X” over the “H” as illustrated in Figure 2–27. Make
the yellow “X” large enough to ensure early pilot recognition that the heliport is closed. Remove the wind
cone(s) and other visual indications of an active heliport.
j. Marking sizes. See Appendix C for guidance on the proportions of painted numbers.
FATO EDGE MARKING REMOVED
WIND CONE REMOVED
CROSSED OUT WITH
PAINTED H MARKING
A YELLOW X MARKING
Figure 2–27. Marking a Closed Heliport: General Aviation
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
216. Heliport lighting. If the heliport operator intends for the facility to support night operations, light
it with FATO and/or TLOF perimeter lights as described below. Design flush light fixtures and
installation methods to support point loads of the design helicopter transmitted through a skid or wheel.
a. TLOF perimeter lights. Use flush green lights meeting the requirements of FAA Airports
Engineering Brief 87, Heliport Perimeter Light for Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), to define
the TLOF perimeter. Use a minimum of. As an option at PPR facilities, use three light fixtures per side of
a square or rectangular TLOF. Locate a light at each corner, with additional lights uniformly spaced
between the corner lights. Using an odd number of lights on each side will place lights along the
centerline of the approach. Define a circular TLOF using an even number of lights, with a minimum of
eight, uniformly spaced. Space the lights at a maximum of 25 feet (7.6 m). Locate flush lights within 1
foot (30 cm) inside or outside of the TLOF perimeter.
(1) Raised TLOF perimeter lights. As an option, use raised, omnidirectional lights meeting the
requirements of EB 87. Locate them on the outside edge of the TLOF or the outer edge of the safety net,
as shown in Figure 2–28. Lighting on the outer edge of the safety net provides better visual cues to pilots
at a distance from the heliport since it outlines a larger area. Make sure the raised lights do not penetrate a
horizontal plane at the FATO elevation by more than 2 inches (5 cm). See Figure 7–3.
SAFETY NET
B
NOT LESS THAN 5 FT [1.5 M]
NOT MORE THAN
2 IN [5 CM]
12 IN [30 CM]
C A
(SURROUNDING
THE STRUCTURE)
Three possible locations for TLOF/LBA edge lighting:
Flush edge fixtures
Omnidirectional light, mounted off the structure edge.
Omnidirectional light, mounted off outer edge of safety net
A
B
C
FALL PROTECTION:
RECOMMENDED IF
ABOVE 30 IN [0.8 M]
REQUIRED IF
ABOVE 4 FT [1.2 M]
Figure 2–28. Elevated TLOF – Perimeter Lighting: General Aviation
53
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
(2) PPR facilities. Use flush lights for PPR heliports. As an option if only the TLOF is load
bearing, use raised omnidirectional lights. Locate the raised lights outside and within 10 feet (3 m) of the
edge of the TLOF. Make sure the lights do not penetrate a horizontal plane at the TLOF elevation by
more than 2 inches (5 cm). As an option when the pavement or structure is larger than the TLOF, mount
perimeter lights on the outer edge of the pavement or structure or the inner or outer edge of the safety net.
b. Load-bearing FATO perimeter lights. Green lights meeting the requirements of EB 87 define
the perimeter of a load bearing FATO. Do not light the FATO perimeter if any portion of the FATO is not
a load-bearing surface. Use a minimum of four. As an option at PPR facilities, use a minimum of three
flush or raised light fixtures per side of a square or rectangular FATO. Locate a light at each corner, with
additional lights uniformly spaced between the corner lights. Using an odd number of lights on each side
will place lights along the centerline of the approach. To define a circular FATO, use an even number of
lights, with a minimum of eight, uniformly spaced. Space lights at a maximum of 25 feet (7.6 m). Locate
flush lights within 1 foot (30 cm) inside or outside of the FATO perimeter (See Figure 2–29). As an
option, use a square or rectangular pattern of FATO perimeter lights even if the TLOF is circular. At a
distance during nighttime operations, a square or rectangular pattern of FATO perimeter lights provides
the pilot with better visual alignment cues than a circular pattern, but a circular pattern may be more
effective in an urban environment. In the case of an elevated FATO with a safety net, mount the perimeter
lights a similar manner as discussed in paragraph 215.a(1). As an option, locate raised FATO perimeter
lights, no more than 8 inches (20 cm) high, 10 feet (3 m) from the FATO perimeter. (See Figure 2–30.)
When a heliport on an airport is sited near a taxiway, there may be a concern that a pilot may confuse the
green taxiway centerline lights with the FATO perimeter lights. As an option in such cases, use yellow
lights as an alternative color for marking the FATO.
c. Floodlights. The FAA has not evaluated floodlights for effectiveness in visual acquisition of a
heliport. However, if ambient light does not adequately illuminate markings for night operations, use
floodlights to illuminate the TLOF, the FATO, and/or the parking area. If possible, mount these
floodlights on adjacent buildings to eliminate the need for tall poles. Take care, however, to place
floodlights clear of the TLOF, the FATO, the safety area, and the approach/departure surfaces, and
transitional surfaces and ensure floodlights and their associated hardware do not constitute an obstruction
hazard. Aim floodlights down to provide adequate illumination on the surface. Make sure floodlights that
might interfere with pilot vision during takeoff and landings are capable of being turned off by pilot
control or at pilot request.
d. Landing direction lights. As an option when it is necessary to provide directional guidance,
install landing direction lights. Landing direction lights are a configuration of five green, omnidirectional
lights meeting the standards of EB 87, on the centerline of the preferred approach/departure path. Space
these lights at 15-foot (5 m) intervals beginning at a point not less than 20 feet (6 m) and not more than
60 feet (18 m) from the TLOF perimeter and extending outward in the direction of the preferred
approach/departure path, as illustrated in Figure 2–31.
e. Flight path alignment lights. As an option, install flight path alignment lights meeting the
requirements of EB 87. Place them in a straight line along the direction of approach and/or departure
flight paths. If necessary, extend them across the TLOF, FATO, safety area or any suitable surface in the
immediate vicinity of the FATO or safety area. Install three or more green lights spaced at 5 feet (1.5 m)
to 10 feet (3.0 m). See Figure 2–11.
f. Taxiway and taxi route lighting.
(1) Taxiway centerline lights. Use flush bidirectional green lights meeting the standards of AC
150/5345-46, Specification for Runway and Taxiway Light Fixtures for type L-852A (straight segments)
or L-852B (curved segments) to define taxiway centerlines. Space these lights at maximum 50-foot (15
m) longitudinal intervals on straight segments and at maximum 25-foot (7.6 m) intervals on curved
segments, using a minimum of four lights to define the curve. Uniformly offset taxiway centerline lights
54
5 APPROACH LIGHTS (OPTIONAL)
LIGHTED WIND CONE SEE FIGURE 2-31 FOR DETAILS
PREFERRED APPROACH C L
FLUSH FATO EDGE LIGHTS
FLUSH TLOF EDGE LIGHTS
1 FT [30 CM]
FLUSH IN-PAVEMENT LIGHT DETAIL
Notes:
1. Install flush FATO and TLOF perimeter lights inside or outside within 1 ft [30 cm]
of the FATO and TLOF respective perimeters.
2. Overall length and weight limitation box is omitted for clarity.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
no more than two feet (0.6 m) if necessary to ease painting the taxiway centerline. As an option, use green
retroreflective markers meeting requirements for Type I markers in AC 150/5345-39, Specification for L­
853, Runway and Taxiway Retroreflective Markers, in lieu of the L-852A or L-852B lighting fixtures.
(2) Taxiway edge lights. Use omnidirectional blue lights to light the edges of a taxiway. As an
option, use blue retroreflective markers to identify the edges of the taxiway in lieu of lights. Make sure
retroreflective markers are no more than 8 inches (20 cm) tall.
(a) Straight segments. Space lights at 50-foot (15.2 m) longitudinal intervals on straight
segments.
Figure 2–29. TLOF/FATO Flush Perimeter Lighting: General Aviation
55
5 APPROACH LIGHTS (OPTIONAL)
SEE FIGURE 2-31 FOR DETAILS
LIGHTED WIND CONE
PREFERRED APPROACH C L
SEE NOTE 2
RAISED FATO OMNIDIRECTIONAL
LIGHTS
FLUSH TLOF EDGE LIGHTS
Notes:
1. Install flush FATO and TLOF perimeter lights inside or outside within 1 ft [30 cm]
of the FATO and TLOF respective perimeters.
2. Install raised FATO lights 10 ft [3 m] outside the FATO perimeter.
3. Overall length and weight limitation box is omitted for clarity.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 2–30. TLOF Flush and FATO Raised Perimeter Lighting: General Aviation
56
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
FATO
TLOF
NOT LESS THAN
20 FT [6 M]
NOR MORE THAN
60 FT [18 M]
4 EQUAL SPACES
@ 15 FT [4.6 M]
= 60 FT [18.4 M]
OMNIDIRECTIONAL GREEN LIGHTS
LEGEND
Figure 2–31. Landing Direction Lights: General Aviation
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
(b) Curved segments. Curved taxiway edges require shorter spacing of edge lights. Base the
spacing on the radius of the curve. AC 150/5340-30, Design and Installation Detail for Airport Visual
Aids, shows the applicable spacing for curves. Space taxiway edge lights uniformly. On curved edges of
more than 30 degrees from point of tangency (PT) of the taxiway section to PT of the intersecting surface,
install at least three edge lights. For radii not listed in AC 150/5340-30, determine spacing by linear
interpolation.
(c) Paved taxiways. Use flush lights meeting the standards of AC 150/5345-46 for type
L-852T.
(d) Unpaved taxiways. Use raised lights meeting the standards of AC 150/5345-46 for type
L-861T. The lateral spacing for the lights or reflectors is equal to the RD of the design helicopter, but not
more than 35 feet (10.7 m).
g. Heliport identification beacon. A heliport identification beacon is optional equipment. It is the
most effective means to aid the pilot in visually locating the heliport. Locate the beacon, flashing
white/green/yellow at the rate of 30 to 45 flashes per minute, on or close to the heliport. Find guidance on
heliport beacons in AC 150/5345-12, Specification for Airport and Heliport Beacon. As an option, allow
the beacon to be pilot controllable such that it is “on” only when needed.
217. Marking and lighting of difficult-to-see objects. It is difficult for a pilot to see unmarked wires,
antennas, poles, cell towers, and similar objects, even in the best daylight weather, in time to take evasive
action. While pilots can avoid such objects during en route operations by flying well above them,
approaches and departures require operations near the ground where obstacles may be a factor. This
paragraph discusses the marking and lighting of objects near, but outside and below the
approach/departure surface. Find guidance on marking and lighting objects in AC 70/7460-1, Obstruction
Marking and Lighting.
a. Airspace. If difficult-to-see objects penetrate the applicable object identification surfaces
illustrated in Figure 2–32 and Figure 2–33, mark these objects to make them more conspicuous. If a
heliport supports operations between dusk and dawn, light these difficult-to-see objects. The object
identification surfaces in Figure 2–32 and Figure 2–33 are described as follows:
(1) In all directions from the safety area except under the approach/departure paths, the object
identification surface starts at the safety area perimeter and extends out horizontally for a distance of 100
feet (30.5 m).
(2) Under the approach/departure surface, the object identification surface starts from the outside
edge of the FATO and extends horizontally out for a distance of 800 feet (244 m) along the approach
path. From this point, the object identification surface extends out for an additional distance of 3,200 feet
(975 m) along the approach path while rising on an 8:1 slope (8 units horizontal in 1 unit vertical). From
the point 800 feet (244 m) from the FATO perimeter, the object identification surface is 100 feet (30.5 m)
beneath the approach/departure surface.
(3) The width of this object identification surface under the approach/departure surface increases
as a function of distance from the safety area. From the safety area perimeter, the object identification
surface extends laterally to a point 100 feet (30.5 m) outside the safety area perimeter. At the upper end of
the surface, the object identification surface extends laterally 200 feet (61 m) on either side of the
approach/departure path.
58
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
b. Shielding of objects. Title 14 CFR Part 77.9, Construction or alteration requiring notice,
provides that if there are a number of objects close together, it may not be necessary to mark all of them if
they are shielded. To meet the shielding guidelines, part 77 requires that an object “be shielded by
existing structures of a permanent and substantial nature or by natural terrain or topographic features of
equal or greater height, and will be located in the congested area of a city, town, or settlement where the
shielded structure will not adversely affect safety in air navigation.”
(8:1 SLOPE)
APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
(8:1 SLOPE)
OBJECT IDENTIFICATION SURFACE
FATO
400 FT
[122 M]
100 FT
[30 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
3,200 FT [975 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
100 FT [30 M]
FROM EDGE
OF SAFETY AREA
100 FT [30 M] FROM EDGE OF SAFETY AREA
100 FT [30 M] R 200 FT
[61 M]
Figure 2–32. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended:
Straight Approach: General Aviation
59
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012 500 FT [152 M] 200 FT [61 M] 400 FT [122M] 100 FT [30 M] 500 FT [152 M] 100 FT [30 M] R 100 FT [30 M] FROM EDGE OF SAFETY AREA FATO 100 FT [30 M] FROM FATO EDGE OF SAFETY AREA (8 1: SLOPE) APPROACH/DEPARTURE
(8:1 SLOPE)
OBJECT IDENTIFICATION
800 FT [244 M]
3,200 FT [975 M]
SURFACE
S
U
RFA
C
E
Figure 2–33. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended:
Curved Approach: General Aviation
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
c. Equipment/object marking. Make heliport maintenance and servicing equipment, as well as
other objects used in the airside operational areas, conspicuous with paint, reflective paint, reflective tape,
or other reflective markings. Reference AC 150/5210-5, Painting, Marking, and Lighting of Vehicles
Used on an Airport.
218. Safety considerations. Consider the following safety enhancements in the design of a heliport.
Address other areas, such as the effects of rotor downwash, based on site conditions and the design
helicopter.
a. Security. Provide a heliport with appropriate means of keeping the operational areas clear of
people, animals, and vehicles. Use a method to control access depending upon the helicopter location and
types of potential intruders.
(1) Safety barrier. At ground-level general aviation heliports, erect a safety barrier around the
helicopter operational areas in the form of a fence or a wall. Construct the barrier no closer to the
operation areas than the outer perimeter of the safety area. Make sure the barrier does not penetrate any
approach/departure (primary or transitional) surface. If necessary in the vicinity of the approach/departure
paths, install the barrier well outside the outer perimeter of the safety area.
(2) Make sure any barrier is high enough to present a positive deterrent to persons inadvertently
entering an operational area and yet low enough to be non-hazardous to helicopter operations.
(3) Control access to airside areas in a manner commensurate with the barrier (for example, build
fences with locked gates). Display a cautionary sign similar to that illustrated in Figure 2–34 at access
points.
b. Rescue and fire-fighting services. Heliports are subject to state and local rescue and fire-fighting
regulations. Provide a fire hose cabinet or extinguisher at each access gate/door and each fueling location.
Locate fire hose cabinets, fire extinguishers, and other fire-fighting equipment near, but below the level
of, the TLOF. Find additional information in various NFPA publications. For more reference material, see
Appendix D.
c. Communications. Use a Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) radio to provide arriving
helicopters with heliport and traffic advisory information but do not use this radio to control air traffic.
Contact the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for information on CTAF licensing.
d. Weather information. An automated weather observing system (AWOS) measures and
automatically broadcasts current weather conditions at the heliport site. When installing an AWOS, locate
it at least 100 feet (30 m) and not more than 700 feet (213 m) from the TLOF and such that its
instruments will not be affected by rotor wash from helicopter operations. Find guidance on AWOS
systems in AC 150/5220-16, Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS) for Non-Federal
Applications, and FAA Order 6560.20, Siting Criteria for Automated Weather Observing Systems
(AWOS). Other weather observing systems will have different siting criteria.
e. Winter operations. Swirling snow raised by a helicopter’s rotor wash can cause the pilot to lose
sight of the intended landing point and/or hide objects that need to be avoided. Design the heliport to
accommodate the methods and equipment used for snow removal. Design the heliport to allow the snow
to be removed sufficiently so it will not present an obstruction hazard to the tail rotor, main rotor, or
undercarriage. Find guidance on winter operations in AC 150/5200-30, Airport Winter Safety and
Operations.
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
CAUTION
HELICOPTER LANDING
AUTHORIZED
PERSONNEL
ONLY
AREA
SAFETY
INSTRUCTIONS
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
STAY CLEAR
OF THE
TAIL ROTOR
APPROACH AND LEAVE HELICOPTER AS DIRECTED BY CREW
IN A CROUCHED MANNER WHEN ROTORS ARE TURNING
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
Figure 2–34. Caution Sign: General Aviation
62
LOWER LIMIT OF THE ON-COURSE SIGNAL
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE REFERENCE LINE
LOWER LIMIT OF THE ON-COURSE SIGNAL
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE REFERENCE LINE
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
PLANE
10°
COURSE CENTERLINE
10°
CRITICAL
OBJECT
VISUAL GLIDESLOPE
INDICATOR (VGSI)
1° MINIMUM CLEARANCE
VISUAL GLIDESLOPE
INDICATOR (VGSI)
VARIABLE SEE DETAIL BELOW
PILOT’S EYES
VISUAL GLIDESLOPE
INDICATOR (VGSI)
3 FT TO 8 FT
[1 M TO 2.4 M]
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 2–35. Visual Glideslope Indicator Siting and Clearance Criteria: General Aviation
63
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
219. Visual glideslope indicators (VGSI). A visual glideslope indicator (VGSI) provides pilots with
visual vertical course and descent cues. Install the VGSI such that the lowest on-course visual signal
provides a minimum of 1 degree of clearance over any object that lies within 10 degrees of the approach
course centerline.
a. Siting. The optimum location of a VGSI is on the extended centerline of the approach path at a
distance that brings the helicopter to a hover with the undercarriage between 3 and 8 feet (0.9 to 2.5 m)
above the TLOF. Figure 2–35 illustrates VGSI clearance criteria. To properly locate the VGSI, estimate
the vertical distance from the undercarriage to the pilot’s eye.
b. Control of the VGSI. As an option, allow the VGSI to be pilot controllable such that it is “on”
only when needed.
c. VGSI needed. A VGSI is an optional feature. However, provide a VGSI if one or more of the
following conditions exist, especially at night:
(1) Obstacle clearance, noise abatement, or traffic control procedures require a particular slope to
be flown.
(2) The environment of the heliport provides few visual surface cues.
d. Additional guidance. Find additional guidance in AC 150/5345-52, Generic Visual Glideslope
Indicators (GVGI), and AC 150/5345-28, Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) Systems.
220. Terminal facilities. A heliport terminal provides curbside access for passengers using private
autos, taxicabs, and public transit vehicles. Public waiting areas need the usual amenities, and a counter
for rental car services may be desirable. Design passenger auto parking areas to accommodate current
requirements, with the ability to expand them to meet future requirements. Readily available public
transportation may reduce the requirement for employee and service personnel auto parking spaces. Build
attractive and functional heliport terminal buildings or sheltered waiting areas. Find guidance on
designing terminal facilities in AC 150/5360-9, Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Building
Facilities at Non-Hub Locations. At PPR heliports, the number of people using the facility may be so
small that there is no need for a terminal building, and minimal needs for other facilities and amenities.
221. Zoning and compatible land use. The FAA encourages general aviation heliport operators to
promote the adoption of the following zoning measures where state and local statutes permit to ensure the
heliport will continue to be available and to protect the investment in the facility.
a. Zoning to limit building/object heights. Find general guidance on drafting an ordinance that
would limit building and object heights in AC 150/5190-4, A Model Zoning Ordinance to Limit Height of
Objects Around Airports. Substitute the heliport surfaces for the airport surfaces in the model ordinance.
b. Zoning for compatible land use. The FAA encourages public agencies to enact zoning
ordinances to control the use of property within the HPZ and the approach/departure path environment,
restricting activities to those that are compatible with helicopter operations. See paragraph 211.
c. Air rights and property easements. Use air rights and property easements as options to prevent
the encroachment of obstacles in the vicinity of a heliport.
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Chapter 3. Transport Heliports
301. General. A transport heliport is intended to accommodate air carrier operators providing
scheduled service, or unscheduled service with large helicopters.
302. Applicability. The standards in this chapter apply to projects funded under the Airport
Improvement Program (AIP) or Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) program. For other projects/heliports,
these standards are the FAA’s recommendations for designing all transport heliports. The design
standards in this chapter assume there will never be more than one helicopter within the final approach
and takeoff area (FATO) and the associated safety area. If there is a need for more than one touchdown
and lift-off area (TLOF) at a heliport, locate each TLOF within its own FATO and within its own safety
area. Figure 3–1 illustrates a typical transport heliport.
303. Access by individuals with disabilities. Various laws require heliports operated by public
entities and those receiving federal financial assistance to meet accessibility requirements. See paragraph
114.
304. Heliport site selection.
a. Long term planning. Public agencies and others planning to develop a transport heliport
consider the possible future need for instrument operations and future expansion.
b. Property requirements. The property needed for a transport heliport depends upon the
volume and types of users and the scope of amenities provided. Property requirements for helicopter
operators and for passenger amenities frequently exceed that required for “airside” purposes.
c. Turbulence. Air flowing around and over buildings, stands of trees, terrain irregularities, etc.
can create turbulence on ground-level and roof-top heliports that may affect helicopter operations. Where
the FATO is located near the edge and top of a building or structure, or within the influence of turbulent
wakes from other buildings or structures, assess the turbulence and airflow characteristics in the vicinity
of, and across the surface of the FATO to determine if an air-gap between the roof, roof parapet or
supporting structure, and/or some other turbulence mitigating design measure is necessary. FAA
Technical Report FAA/RD-84/25, Evaluating Wind Flow around Buildings on Heliport Placement
addresses the wind’s effect on helicopter operations. Take the following actions in selecting a site to
minimize the effects of turbulence.
(1) Ground-level heliports. Features such buildings, trees, and other large objects can cause
air turbulence and affect helicopter operations from sites immediately adjacent to them. Therefore, locate
the landing and takeoff area away from such objects in order to minimize air turbulence in the vicinity of
the FATO and the approach/departure paths.
(2) Elevated heliports. Establishing a 6 foot (1.8 m) or more air gap on all sides above the
level of the roof will generally minimize the turbulent effect of air flowing over the roof edge. If an air
gap is included in the design, keep it free at all times of objects that would obstruct the airflow. If it is not
practical to include an air gap or some other turbulence mitigating design measure where there is
turbulence, operational limitations may need to be considered under certain wind conditions (see
paragraph 101).
d. Electromagnetic effects. Nearby electromagnetic devices, such as a large ventilator motor,
elevator motor or other large electrical consumer may cause temporary aberrations in the helicopter
magnetic compass and interfere with other onboard navigational equipment.
65
IN-GROUND FATO
MARKING
RECTANGULAR FATO
APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE
PARKING
APRON
APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE
TLOF PERIMETER LIGHTED
WIND CONE MARKING
RECTANGULAR TLOF SAFETY AREA
Notes:
1. Locate the wind cone so that it will not interfere with the approach/departure path
or transitional surface.
2. TLOF size and weight limitation box omitted for clarity.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 3–1. Typical Transport Heliport: Transport
66
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
305. Basic layout. The heliport consists of a TLOF contained within a FATO. A safety area surrounds
the FATO. The relationship of the TLOF to the FATO and the safety area is shown in Figure 3–2. A
FATO contains only one TLOF. Provide appropriate approach/departure airspace to allow safe
approaches to and departures from landing sites. To the extent feasible, align the preferred
approach/departure path with the predominant winds (see paragraph 309). Where helicopter flight
manuals specify the minimum size required for operations, take the size into account in the design of the
facility.
306. Touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF).
a. TLOF location. The TLOF of a transport heliport is normally at ground level but may be
developed with the TLOF located on a pier or, when carefully planned, on the roof of a building. The
TLOF is centered in the load-bearing area (LBA), and on the major axis of the FATO.
b. TLOF size. The TLOF is a square or rectangular surface whose minimum length and width is
the rotor diameter (RD) of the design helicopter but not less than 50 feet (15.2 m). Increasing the LBA
centered on the TLOF may provide some safety and operational advantages.
c. Elongated TLOF: An elongated TLOF can provide an increased safety margin and greater
operational flexibility. As an option, design an elongated TLOF with a landing position in the center and
two takeoff positions, one at either end, as illustrated in Figure 3–3. Design the landing position to have a
minimum length of the RD of the design helicopter, but not less than 50 feet (15.2 m). If the TLOF is
elongated, also provide an elongated FATO.
d. Ground-level TLOF surface characteristics.
(1) Design loads. Design the TLOF and any supporting TLOF structure to be capable of
supporting the dynamic loads of the design helicopter.
(2) Paving. Construct the TLOF of portland cement concrete (PCC) (see AC 150/5370-10,
Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports items P-501) where feasible. Use a broomed or
roughened pavement finish to provide a skid-resistant surface for helicopters and non-slippery footing for
people.
e. Rooftop and other elevated TLOFs.
(1) Design loads. Design elevated TLOFs and any TLOF supporting structure to be capable
of supporting the dynamic loads of the design helicopter. An elevated heliport is illustrated in Figure 3–4.
(2) TLOF surface characteristics. Construct rooftop and other elevated heliport TLOFs of
metal, concrete, or other materials subject to local building codes. Provide TLOF surfaces with a skidresistant
surface finish for helicopters and non-slippery footing for people.
f. TLOF gradients. Recommended TLOF gradients are defined in Chapter 7.
67
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
1/2 RD but not less than
2 RD but not less than
100 ft [30 m]
F
G
TLOF
FATO
SAFETY AREA
B
F
DIM
B
C
E
F
ITEM VALUE
G
3/4 D – 1/2 RD
NOTES
2 RD but not less than
200 ft [60 m]
A 1 RD but not less than
50 ft [15 m]
G E
C
30 ft [9 m]
See paragraph 306.a.(2)
and figure 3-5 for
1,000 ft [304 m]
adjustments for
elevations above
Minimum TLOF Width
Minimum TLOF Length
Minimum FATO Width
Minimum FATO Length
Minimum Safety Area Width
Minimum Separation
Between the Perimeters
of the TLOF and FATO
1 RD but not less than
50 ft [15 m]
Figure 3–2. TLOF/FATO Safety Area Relationships
and Minimum Dimensions: Transport
68
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
A
C
30 ft [9 m]
B
DIM
E
ITEM VALUE
F
NOTES
A
B
C
E
F
E
F
TAKEOFF POSITION
TAKEOFF POSITION
FATO
LANDING POSITION
TLOF
SAFETY AREA
100 ft [30 m]
1 RD but not less than
50 ft [15 m] Minimum TLOF Width
Position Length
Minimum FATO Width
Minimum Safety Area Width
Minimum Separation
Between the Perimeters
of the TLOF and FATO
1 RD but not less than
50 ft [15 m]
Minimum TLOF/Landing
2 RD but not less than
3 4 D – 1
2 RD
1
2 RD but not less than
Figure 3–3. Elongated FATO with Two Takeoff Positions: Transport
69
LIGHTED WIND CONE TLOF 5 FT [1.5 M] WIDE SAFETY NET
RAISED FATO
RAMP
SAFETY AREA
HELIPORT
BEACON
FLUSH FATO
LIGHTING
CAUTION
HELICOPTER LANDING
AREA
SAFETY
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
STAY CLEAR
APPROACH AND LEAVE HELICOPTER AS DIRECTED BY CREW OF THE
IN A CROUCHED MANNER WHEN ROTORS ARE TURNING TAIL ROTOR
INSTRUCTIONS es:
AUTHORIZED . See Figure 3-23, Elevated FATO Perimeter Lighting, PERSONNEL
for detailed views of the safety net and lighting. ONLY
. TLOF size and weight limitation box is omitted
for clarity. Post at Personnel Entrance
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012 Not
1
2
Figure 3–4. Elevated Heliport: Transport
70
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
307. Final approach and takeoff area (FATO). A transport heliport has at least one FATO. The
FATO contains a TLOF within its borders at which arriving helicopters terminate their approach, and
from which departing helicopters take off.
a. FATO size. The FATO is a rectangular surface with the long axis aligned with the preferred
flight path. See Figure 3–2.
(1) FATO width. The minimum width of a FATO is at least 2.0 times the RD of the design
helicopter but not less than 100 feet (30.5 m).
(2) FATO length. The minimum length of the FATO is 2.0 times the RD of the design
helicopter but not less than 200 feet (61 m). At elevations above 1000 feet MSL, a longer FATO is
required to provide an increased safety margin and greater operational flexibility. Use the additional
FATO length depicted in Figure 3–5.
300
200
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
90
60
30
ADDITION TO FATO LENGTH IN FEET
ADDITION TO FATO LENGTH IN METERS
SITE ELEVATION (IN THOUSANDS OF FEET)
Example: Add 80 feet to the basic FATO length for a site elevation of 3,200 feet.
Figure 3–5. Additional FATO Length for Heliports at Higher Elevations: Transport
(3) Design the minimum distance between the TLOF perimeter and the FATO perimeter to
be not less than ¾ D – ½ RD, where D and RD are of the design helicopter.
b. FATO surface characteristics.
(1) Design the entire FATO to support the dynamic loads of the design helicopter.
(2) If the FATO surface is unpaved, treat it to prevent loose stones and any other flying
debris caused by rotor wash.
(3) Design the portion of the FATO abutting the TLOF to be contiguous with the TLOF, with
the adjoining edges at the same elevation.
c. Rooftop and other elevated FATOs.
71
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
(1) Design loads. Design elevated FATOs and any FATO supporting structure to be capable
of supporting the dynamic loads of the design helicopter
(2) Elevation. Elevate the FATO above the level of any object in the safety area that cannot
be removed.
(3) Obstructions. Elevator penthouses, cooling towers, exhaust vents, fresh air vents, and
other raised features can affect heliport operations. Establish control mechanisms to ensure obstruction
hazards are not installed after the heliport is operational.
(4) Air quality. Helicopter exhaust can affect building air quality if the heliport is too close
to fresh air vents. When designing a building intended to support a helipad, locate fresh air vents
accordingly. When adding a helipad to an existing building, relocate fresh air vents if necessary or, if
relocation is not practical, installing charcoal filters or a fresh air intake bypass louver system for HVAC
systems may be adequate.
(5) FATO surface characteristics. Construct rooftop and other elevated heliport FATOs of
metal, concrete, or other materials subject to local building codes. Provide the FATO surface with nonslippery
footing for people.
(6) Safety net. If the platform is elevated 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above its surroundings, Title
29 CFR Part 1910.23, Guarding Floor and Wall Openings and Holes, requires the provision of fall
protection. The FAA recommends such protection for all platforms elevated 30 inches (76 cm) or more.
However, do not use permanent railings or fences since they would be safety hazards during helicopter
operations. As an option, install a safety net, meeting state and local regulations but not less than 5 feet
(1.5 m) wide. Design the safety net to have a load-carrying capability of 50 lb/sq ft (244 kg/sq m). Do not
allow the net, as illustrated in Figure 3–23, to project above the level of the FATO. Fasten both the inside
and outside edges of the safety net to a solid structure. Construct nets of materials that are resistant to
environmental effects.
(7) Access to elevated FATOs. Title 29 CFR Part 1926.34, Means of Egress, requires two
separate access points for an elevated structure such as one supporting an elevated FATO. Design stairs in
compliance with Title 29 CFR Part 1910.24, Fixed Industrial Stairs. Design handrails required by this
standard to fold down or be removable to below the level of the FATO so they will not be hazards during
helicopter operations.
d. Mobile objects within the FATO. The FATO design standards in this AC assume the TLOF
and FATO are closed to other aircraft if a helicopter or other mobile object is within the FATO or the
safety area.
e. Fixed objects within the FATO. Remove all fixed objects projecting above the FATO
elevation except for lighting fixtures, which may project a maximum of 2 inches (5 cm). See Figure 7–3.
For ground level heliports, remove all above-ground objects to the extent practicable.
f. FATO/FATO separation. If a heliport has more than one FATO, separate the perimeters of
two FATOs so the respective safety areas do not overlap. This separation assumes simultaneous
approach/departure operations will not take place. If the heliport operator intends for the facility to
support simultaneous operations, provide a minimum 200 foot (61 m) separation.
g. FATO gradients. Recommended FATO gradients are defined in Chapter 7.
308. Safety area. The safety area surrounds the FATO.
a. Safety area width. The safety area extends outward on all sides of the FATO for a distance
of at least ½ RD but not less than 30 feet (9 m).
72
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
b. Mobile objects within the safety area. The safety area design standards of this AC assume
the TLOF and FATO are closed to other aircraft if a helicopter or other mobile object is within the FATO
or the safety area.
c. Fixed objects within a safety area. Remove all fixed objects within a safety area projecting
above the FATO elevation except for lighting fixtures, which may project a maximum of 2 inches (5 cm).
See Figure 7–3. For ground level heliports, remove all above-ground objects to the extent practicable.
d. Safety area surface. The safety area need not be load bearing. Figure 3–6 depicts a safety
area extending over water. If possible, make the portion of the safety area abutting the FATO contiguous
with the FATO with the adjoining edges at the same elevation. This is needed to avoid the risk of catching
a helicopter skid or wheel. Clear the safety area of flammable materials and treat the area to prevent loose
stones and any other flying debris caused by rotor wash.
e. Safety area gradients. Safety area gradients are detailed in 6Chapter 7.
309. VFR approach/departure paths. The purpose of approach/departure airspace, shown in Figure
3–7 and Figure 3–8, is to provide sufficient airspace clear of hazards to allow safe approaches to and
departures from the TLOF.
a. Number of approach/departure paths. Align preferred approach/departure paths with the
predominant wind direction so downwind operations are avoided and crosswind operations are kept to a
minimum. To accomplish this, design a transport heliport to have more than one approach/departure path.
Base other approach/departure paths on the assessment of the prevailing winds or, when this information
is not available, separate such flight paths and the preferred flight path by at least 135 degrees. See Figure
3–7.
b. VFR Approach/Departure and Transitional Surfaces. Figure 3–7 and Figure 3–8 illustrate
the approach/departure and transitional surfaces.
(1) An approach/departure surface is centered on each approach/departure path. The
approach /departure path starts at the edge of the FATO and slopes upward at 8:1 (8 units horizontal in
1 unit vertical) for a distance of 4,000 feet (1,219 m) where the width is 500 feet (152 m) at a height of
500 feet (152 m) above the heliport elevation.
(2) The transitional surfaces start from the edges of the FATO parallel to the flight path
center line, and from the outer edges of approach/departure surface, and extend outwards at a slope of 2:1
(2 units horizontal in 1 units vertical) for a distance of 250 feet (76 m) from the centerline. The
transitional surfaces start at the edge of the FATO parallel to the approach/departure surfaces and extend
to the end of the approach/departure surface. The transitional surface does not apply on the FATO edge
opposite the approach/departure surface.
73
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
FATO SAFETY AREA EXTENDS
BEYOND PIER TLOF
PIER
TAXIWAY ON-SHORE
PARKING APRON
Note: Markings not shown omitted for clarity.
Figure 3–6. Non-load-bearing Safety Area: Transport
74
FATO
PREDOMINATE WIND DIRECTION
SURFACE BASED UPON THE
PREFERRED APPROACH/DEPARTURE
APPROACH/
DEPARTURE
SURFACE
(TYPICAL)
SEE DETAIL
OPPOSITE
HELIPORT
135°
SHADED AREA
TO HAVE SAME
CHARACTERISTICS
AS FATO
250 FT [76 M]
500 FT [152 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
4,000 FT
[1,219 M]
LEGEND
8:1 Approach/Departure
Surface
250 FT FATO
[76 M] 2:1 Transitional Surface
500 FT
[152 M]
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 3–7. VFR Heliport Approach/Departure and Transitional Surfaces:
Transport
75
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
(3) Make sure the approach/departure and transitional surfaces are free of penetrations unless
an FAA aeronautical study determines such penetrations not to be hazards. The FAA conducts such
aeronautical studies only at public heliports and private airports with FAA-approved approach
procedures. Paragraph 111 provides additional information on hazards to air navigation.
c. Curved VFR approach/departure paths. As an option, include one curve in VFR
approach/departure paths. As an option, design these paths to use the airspace above public lands, such as
freeways or rivers. When including a curved portion in the approach/departure path, make sure the sum of
the radius of arc defining the center line and the length of the straight portion originating at the FATO is
not less than 1,886 feet (575 m). Design the approach/departure path so the minimum radius of the curve
is 886 feet (270 m) and that the curve follows a 1,000 feet (305 m) straight section. Design the
approach/departure path so the combined length of the center line of the curved portion and the straight
portion is 4,000 feet (1,219 m). See Figure 3–8.
d. Flight path alignment guidance. As an option, use flight path alignment markings and/or
flight path alignment lights (see paragraphs 301.d and 301.g) where it is desirable and practicable to
indicate available approach and/or departure flight path direction(s). See Figure 3–9.
e. Periodic review of obstructions. Vigilant heliport operators reexamine obstacles in the
vicinity of approach/departure paths on at least an annual basis. This reexamination includes an appraisal
of the growth of trees near approach and departure paths. Paragraph 111 provides additional information
on hazards to air navigation. Pay particular attention to obstacles that need to be marked or lighted. It may
be helpful to maintain a list of the GPS coordinates and the peak elevation of obstacles.
310. Heliport protection zone (HPZ). The FAA recommends the establishment of an HPZ for each
approach/departure surface. The HPZ is the area under the approach/departure surface starting at the
FATO perimeter and extending out for a distance of 400 feet (122 m), as illustrated in Figure 3–10. The
HPZ is intended to enhance the protection of people and property on the ground. This is achieved through
heliport owner control over the HPZ. Such control includes clearing HPZ areas (and maintaining them
clear) of incompatible objects and activities. The FAA discourages residences and places of public
assembly in an HPZ. (Churches, schools, hospitals, office buildings, shopping centers, and other uses
with similar concentrations of persons typify places of public assembly.) Do not locate hazardous
materials, including fuel, in the HPZ.
311. Wind cone.
a. Specification. Use a wind cone conforming to AC 150/5345-27, Specification for Wind Cone
Assemblies, to show the direction and magnitude of the wind. Use a color that provides the best possible
color contrast to its background.
b. Wind cone location. Locate the wind cone so it provides the pilot with valid wind direction
and speed information in the vicinity of the heliport under all wind conditions.
(1) At many landing sites, there may be no single, ideal location for the wind cone. At other
sites, it may not be possible to site a wind cone at the ideal location. In such cases, install more than one
wind cone in order to provide the pilot with all the wind information needed for safe operations.
(2) Place the wind cone so a pilot on the approach path can see it clearly when the helicopter
is 500 feet (150 m) from the TLOF.
(3) Place the wind cone so pilots can see it from the TLOF.
(4) To avoid presenting an obstruction hazard, locate the wind cone(s) outside the safety
area, and so it does not penetrate the approach/departure or transitional surfaces.
76
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
c. Wind cone lighting. For night operations, illuminate the wind cone, either internally or
externally, to ensure it is clearly visible.
312. Taxiways and taxi routes. Taxiways and taxi routes provide for the movement of helicopters
from one part of a landing facility to another. They provide a connecting path between the FATO and a
parking area. They also provide a maneuvering aisle within the parking area. A taxi route includes the
taxiway plus the appropriate clearances needed on both sides. The relationship between a taxiway and a
taxi route is illustrated in Figure 3–11.
a. Taxiway/taxi route widths. The dimensions of taxiways and taxi routes are a function of
helicopter size and type of taxi operations (ground taxi or hover taxi). Find these dimensions in Table 3-1.
Normally, the requirement for hover taxi dictates the taxiway/taxi route widths. However, when the fleet
comprises a combination of large ground taxiing helicopters and smaller air taxiing helicopters, the larger
aircraft may dictate the taxiway/taxi route widths. If wheel-equipped helicopters taxi with wheels not
touching the surface, design the facility with hover taxiway widths rather than ground taxiway widths.
Where the visibility of the centerline marking cannot be guaranteed at all times, such as locations where
snow or dust commonly obscure the centerline marking and it is not practical to remove it, determine the
minimum taxiway/taxi route dimensions as if there was no centerline marking.
b. Surfaces. For ground taxiways, provide a portland cement concrete or asphalt surface. For
unpaved portions of taxi routes, provide a turf cover or treat the ground in some way to prevent dirt and
debris from being raised by a taxiing helicopter’s rotor wash.
c. Gradients. See Chapter 7 for taxiway and taxi route gradient standards.
313. Helicopter parking. A transport heliport has a paved apron for parking helicopters. The size of
the apron depends on the number and size of specific helicopters to be accommodated. It is not necessary
that every parking position accommodate the design helicopter. Design individual parking positions to
accommodate the helicopter size and weight expected to use the parking position at the facility. However,
use the design helicopter to determine the separation between parking positions and taxi routes. Use the
larger helicopter to determine the separation between parking positions intended for helicopters of
different sizes. Design parking positions to support the static loads of the helicopter intended to use the
parking area. Ground taxi turns of wheeled helicopters are significantly larger than a hover turn. Consider
the turn radius of helicopters when designing taxi intersections and parking positions for wheeled
helicopters. Design heliport parking areas so helicopters will be parked in an orientation that keeps the
“avoid areas” around the tail rotors (see Figure 3–12) clear of passenger walkways. Establish separate
aprons for specific functions such as passenger boarding, maintenance, and parking of based and transient
helicopters.
Table 3-1. Taxiway and Taxi Route Dimensions – Transport Heliports
Taxiway
(TW)
Centerline
Marking
Type
TW Edge
Marking
Type
Minimum
Width of
Paved Area
Lateral
Separation
Between TW
Edge Markings
Total Taxi Route
Width
Ground
Taxiway Painted Painted 2 x UC 2 x UC 1½ RD
Hover Taxi Painted Painted 2 x UC 2 x UC 2 RD
RD: rotor diameter of the design helicopter
TW: taxiway
UC: undercarriage length or width (whichever is larger) of the design helicopter
77
500 FT
[152 M]
1,000 FT [305 M]
R = 886 FT
[270 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
R = 1,886 FT [575 M]
Legend:
8:1 Approach/Departure
Surface
2:1 Transitional Surface
Notes:
1. Use any combination of straight portions and one curved portion using the following formula:
S + R 1,886 ft [575 m] and R 886 ft [270 m], where S is the length of the straight portion(s) and R is the
radius of the turn. Note that any combination 1,886 ft [575 m] will work.
2. The minimum total length of the centerline of the straight and curved portion is 4,000 ft [1,219 m].
3. Helicopter take-off performance may be reduced in a curve. Consider a straight portion along the
take-off climb surface prior to the start of the curve to allow for acceleration.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 3–8. Curved Approach/Departure: Transport
78
BIDIRECTIONAL AND SINGLE FLIGHT PATHS
SAFETY AREA SINGLE FLIGHT
PATH MARKING
FATO
BIDIRECTIONAL
FLIGHT PATH MARKING
TLOF
SEE DETAIL A
5 FT [1.5 M] 10 FT [3.0 M]
MINIMUM
1.5 FT
[0.46 M]
LIGHTS (3 MINIMUM) 5 FT
5 – 10 FT [1.5 M] [1.5 -3.0 M] SPACING
DETAIL A FLIGHT PATH ALIGNMENT MARKING DETAIL
Notes (arrow): Notes (lights):
1. Arrowheads have constant 1. Light type: omnidirectional inset green
dimensions lights
2. If necessary, adjust stroke length to match length 2. If necessary, locate lights outside arrow
available (Minimum length: 10 ft [3 m])
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 3–9. Flight Path Alignment Marking and Lights: Transport
79
8:1 APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
HELIPORT
PROTECTION ZONE
400 FT [122 M]
AT GROUND LEVEL
8:1 APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
SAFETY AREA
FATO
TLOF
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
FATO
HELIPORT
PROTECTION ZONE
400 FT [122 M]
AT GROUND LEVEL
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 3–10. Heliport Protection Zone: Transport
80
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
PAVED TAXIWAY WIDTH
NOT LESS THAN TWO TIMES
THE UNDERCARRIAGE WIDTH
OF THE DESIGN HELICOPTER
TAXIWAY EDGE MARKING:
TWO CONTINUOUS 6 IN [15 CM]
YELLOW LINES SPACED 6 IN [15 CM] APART
TAXI ROUTE WIDTH
SEE TABLE 3-1 FOR
TAXIWAY/TAXI ROUTE WIDTH
TAXIWAY CENTERLINE MARKING:
CONTINUOUS 6 IN [15 CM] YELLOW LINE
Figure 3–11. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship,
Centerline and Edge Marking: Transport
81
1 R
D
P A R K I N G C I R C
L
E
R
O T
O R L I
T A
A R C
SECURITY FENCE SEE NOTE 2
PASSENGER WALKWAY
SEE NOTE 2
SEE NOTE 3
CAUTION SIGN
AT GATE
LARGEST D THE
PARKING POSITION
WILL ACCOMMODATE
PARKING POSITION
IDENTIFIER
(LETTER OR NUMBER)
TDPC MARKING
Notes:
1. Base the design of these parking positions on the 3. Minimum distance between tail rotor arcs is 1
3 RD.
understanding that the helicopter may pivot about the If parking areas are different sizes, 1
3 RD of the larger mast prior to exiting the parking position. design helicopter.
2. Minimum clearance between the
tail rotor arc and fixed objects:
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger
helicopter but not less than 10 ft [3 m]
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 3–12. “Turn-around” Helicopter Parking Position Marking: Transport
82
1 R D
P A R K I N G
C I
R C
L
E
CAUTION SIGN
AT GATE SECURITY FENCE
SEE NOTE 2
PASSENGER WALKWAY
SHOULDER
MARKING
Notes:
1. Base the design of these parking positions on
the understanding that the helicopter may enter the
parking position from either direction.
2. Minimum clearance between 1RD
parking circle and fixed objects:
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger
helicopter but not less than 10 ft [3 m]
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
SEE NOTE 3
LARGEST D THE
PARKING POSITION
WILL ACCOMMODATE
PARKING POSITION
IDENTIFIER
(LETTER OR NUMBER)
3. Minimum distance between tail rotor arcs is 1
3 RD.
If parking areas are different sizes, 1
3 RD of the larger
design helicopter.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 3–13. “Taxi-through” Helicopter Parking Position Marking: Transport
83
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
a. Location. Do not locate aircraft parking areas under an approach/departure surface. As an
option, allow aircraft parking areas under the transitional surfaces.
(1) For “turn around” parking positions, locate the parking position to provide a minimum
distance between the tail rotor arc and any object, building, or safety area. The standard for this distance
is 10 feet (3 m) for ground taxi operations and the greater of 10 feet (3 m) or 1
/3 RD for hover taxi
operations. See Figure 3–12 and Figure 3–14.
(2) For “taxi-through” parking positions, locate the parking position to provide a minimum
distance between the main rotor circle and any object, building, or safety area. The standard for this
distance is 10 feet (3 m) for ground taxi operations and the greater of 10 feet (3 m) or 1
/3 RD for hover taxi
operations. See Figure 3–13 and Figure 3–15.
(3) Locate the parking position to provide a minimum distance between the tail rotor arc and
the edge of any taxi route. The standard for this distance is ½ RD but not less than 30 feet (9.1 m).
b. Size. Parking position sizes are dependent upon the helicopter size. The clearances between
parking positions are dependent upon the type of taxi operations (ground-taxi or hover/ taxi) and the
intended paths for maneuvering in and out of the parking position. The more demanding operation will
dictate what is needed at a particular site. Usually, the parking area needs for skid-equipped helicopters
will be the most demanding. However, when the largest helicopter is a very large, wheeled aircraft (for
example, the S-61), and the skid-equipped helicopters are all much smaller, the parking size needs for
wheeled helicopters may be the most demanding. If wheel-equipped helicopters taxi with wheels not
touching the surface, design parking areas based on hover taxi operations rather than ground taxi
operations.
(1) If all parking positions are the same size, design them to be large enough to accommodate
the largest helicopter that will operate at the heliport.
(2) As an option when there is more than one parking position, design the facility with
parking positions of various sizes with at least one position that will accommodate the largest helicopter
that will park at the heliport. Design other parking positions to be smaller, for the size of the individual or
range of individual helicopters parking at that position.
(3) “Turn-around” parking positions are illustrated in Figure 3–14.
(4) “Taxi-through” parking positions are illustrated in Figure 3–15. When using this design
for parking positions, the heliport owner and operator take steps to ensure all pilots are informed that
“turn-around” departures from the parking position are not permitted.
(5) Do not design “back-out” parking positions at transport heliports.
c. Passenger walkways., Provide marked walkways at parking positions. Locate passenger
walkways to minimize passenger exposure to various risks during passenger loading and unloading.
Design the pavement so spilled fuel does not drain onto passenger walkways or toward parked
helicopters.
d. Fueling. Design the facility to allow fueling with the use of a fuel truck or a specific fueling
area with stationary fuel tanks.
84
TAIL ROTOR
ARC
1
3 RD
1 RD CIRCLE
PARKING POSITION
CENTERLINE (SOLID)
TAXI ROUTE
WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
SEE
NOTE 2
TAXI ROUTE WIDTH
TDPC MARKING SEE TABLE 2-2
APPROACH/ APPROACH/
DEPARTURE
DEPARTURE
SURFACE
SURFACE
SAFETY AREA
TLOF EDGE MARKING FATO EDGE MARKING
Notes:
1. Several markings (such as Parking Position Identifier and passenger walkways) have been omitted for
clarity.
2. Minimum clearance between the tail rotor arcs :
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger helicopter, but not less than 10 ft [3 m]
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 3–14. Parking Area Design – “Turn-around” Parking Positions: Transport
85
TLOF EDGE MARKING FATO EDGE MARKING
APPROACH/ APPROACH/
DEPARTURE DEPARTURE
SURFACE SURFACE
SAFETY AREA
TAXI ROUTE
WIDTH SHOULDER LINE
SEE TABLE 2-2 MARKING
TAXI ROUTE
WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
SEE
NOTE 3
TAXI ROUTE
WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
1
3 RD
1 RD CIRCLE PARKING POSITION
Notes: CENTERLINE (SOLID)
1. Several markings (such as Parking Position Identifier and passenger walkways) have been omitted for clarity.
2. Design parking positions so that the helicopters exit taxiing forward.
3. Minimum clearance between the arcs generated by the main rotor:
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger helicopter, but not less than 10 ft [3 m]
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 3–15. Parking Area Design – “Taxi-through” Parking Position
86
TDPC MARKING
(USE WITH TURN-AROUND
PARKING ONLY)
INNER DIAMETER =
1
2 D OF DESIGN HELICOPTER
18 IN. [46 CM] WIDE
YELLOW STRIPE
CENTERLINE
12 IN [30 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
10 FT [3 M]
OUTER DIAMETER CIRCLE
6 IN [15 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
6 IN [15 CM]
WIDE STRIPE
YELLOW LINE
PASSENGER WALKWAY
IN BLACK AND WHITE PAINT
SHOULDER LINE
(USE WITH TAXI-THROUGH
ONLY)
6 IN [15 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
1 RD CIRCLE
6 IN [15 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
PARKING POSITION WEIGHT
LIMITATION (IF APPLICABLE)
IN 3 FT [0.9 M] HIGH CHARACTERS
PARKING POSITION IDENTIFIER
(LETTER OR NUMBER)
IN 3 FT [0.9 M] HIGH CHARACTERS
LARGEST D THE PARKING
POSITION WILL ACCOMMODATE
IN 3 FT [0.9 M] HIGH CHARACTERS
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 3–16. Parking Position Identification, Size and Weight Limitations: Transport
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
(1) Various federal, state, and local requirements for petroleum handling facilities apply to
systems for storing and dispensing fuel. Find guidance in AC 150/5230-4, Aircraft Fuel Storage,
Handling, and Dispensing on Airports. Find additional information in various National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA) publications. For a list of more resources, see Appendix D.
(2) Do not locate fueling equipment in the TLOF, FATO, or safety area. Design separate
fueling locations and mark them to minimize the potential for helicopters to collide with the dispensing
equipment. Design fueling areas so there is no object tall enough to be hit by the main or tail rotor blades
within a distance of RD of the design helicopter from the center point of the position where the helicopter
is fueled (providing ½ RD clearance from the rotor tips). If this is not practical at an existing facility,
install long fuel hoses.
(3) Lighting. Light the fueling area if night fueling operations are contemplated. Ensure any
light poles do not constitute an obstruction hazard.
e. Tiedowns. Install recessed tiedowns to accommodate extended or overnight parking of based
or transient helicopters. Ensure any depression associated with the tiedowns is of a diameter not greater
than one-half the width of the smallest helicopter landing wheel or landing skid anticipated to be operated
on the heliport surface. In addition, provide storage for tiedown chocks, chains, cables, and ropes off the
heliport surface to avoid fouling landing gear. Find guidance on tiedowns in AC 20-35, Tiedown Sense.
314. Heliport markers and markings. Markers and/or surface markings identify the facility as a
heliport. Use surface markings of paint or preformed material. (See AC 150/5370-10, Item P-620, for
specifications for paint and preformed material). As an option, use reflective paint and reflective markers,
though remember overuse of reflective material can be blinding to a pilot using landing lights. As an
option, outline lines/markings with a 6-inch (15 cm) wide line of a contrasting color to enhance
conspicuity. Place markings that define the edges of a TLOF, FATO, taxiway or apron within the limits
of those areas. Use the following markers and markings.
a. Heliport identification marking. The identification marking identifies the location as a
heliport, marks the TLOF and provides visual cues to the pilot. The marking consists of a white “H.” The
“H” has a minimum height of 0.3 D. Locate the “H” in the center of the TLOF and orient it on the axis of
the preferred approach/departure path. Place a one-foot wide bar under the “H” when it is necessary to
distinguish the preferred approach/departure direction. The proportions and layout of the letter “H” are
illustrated in Figure 3–17.
b. TLOF markings.
(1) TLOF perimeter marking. Define the perimeter of a TLOF with a continuous 12-inch
(30 cm) wide, white line, as shown in Figure 3–18.
(2) Touchdown/positioning circle (TDPC) marking. A TDPC marking provides guidance
to allow a pilot to touch down in a specific position on paved surfaces. When the pilot’s seat is over the
marking, the undercarriage will be inside the LBA, and all parts of the helicopter will be clear of any
obstacle by a safe margin. A TDPC marking is a yellow circle with an inner diameter of ½ D and a line
width of 18 in (46 cm). Locate a TDPC marking in the center of a TLOF. See Figure 3–17.
88
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
ALTERNATE MARKING WITH
2.
3.
DETAIL B
NO WEIGHT RESTRICTIONS
TLOF SIZE/WEIGHT
LIMITATION ‘BOX’
SEE DETAIL B
SEE DETAIL A
DETAIL A
HELIPORT INDENTIFICATION
SYMBOL
NO WEIGHT LIMIT
Notes:
See Appendix C for the form and proportion of the numbers used in the TLOF Size and
“12” indicates the maximum takeoff weight (12,000 lbs) of the TLOF design helicopter,
“D53” indicates the overall length of the largest helicopter (53 ft) for which the TLOF is
1.
Limitation Box.
designed.
in units of thousands of pounds.
PAINT
OF “H” WHITE
INTERIOR
A
(0.30 D)
0.1A 0.02A
0.66A
0.2A
10 IN
[25 CM]
SEE NOTE 2
SEE NOTE 3
10 FT
[3 M]
SQUARE
TOUCHDOWN POSITION CIRCLE
INNER DIAMETER – 1
2 D OF DESIGN
HELICOPTER
18 IN [46 CM] WIDE YELLOW LINE
Figure 3–17. Standard Heliport Identification Symbol,
TLOF Size and Weight Limitations: Transport
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
DETAIL A
5 FT [1.5 M]
Notes:
1. Orient the “H” on the axis of the preferred approach/departure surface.
FATO EDGE MARKING
SEE NOTES 4 & 5 AND DETAIL A
TLOF EDGE MARKING
APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE
APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE
SAFETY AREA
SEE NOTE 3
FATO IN-GROUND MARKING
12 IN [30 CM]
5 FT [1.5 M] MIN
6 FT [2 M] MAX
TDPC
MARKING
2. Mark the perimeter of the TLOF and FATO.
3.
4.
Define the perimeter of a paved or hard surfaced TLOF with a continuous
12 in [30 cm] white line.
Define the perimeter of a paved FATO with a 12 in [30 cm] wide dashed line per Detail A.
5.
6. See Figure 3-17 for ” H”, Touchdown/Position, Overall Length and Weight Limitation box
dimensions.
Define the perimeter of an unpaved FATO with flush in-ground markers per Detail A.
Figure 3–18. Paved TLOF/Paved FATO –
Paved TLOF/Unpaved FATO – Marking: Transport
90
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
(3) TLOF size and weight limitations. Mark the TLOF to indicate the length and weight of
the largest helicopter it will accommodate, as shown in Figure 3–17. Place these markings in a box in the
lower right-hand corner of the TLOF, or the on right-hand side of the “H” of a circular TLOF, when
viewed from the preferred approach direction. The box is 10 feet square (3 m). The numbers are 36” (92
cm) high (see Figure C–2). The numbers are black with a white background.
(4) TLOF size limitation. This number is the length (D) of the largest helicopter the TLOF
will accommodate, as shown in Figure 3–17. The marking consists of the letter “D” followed by the
dimension in feet. Do not use metric equivalents for this purpose. Center this marking in the lower section
of the TLOF size/weight limitation box.
(5) TLOF weight limitations. If a TLOF has limited weight-carrying capability, mark it
with the maximum takeoff weight of the design helicopter, in units of thousands of pounds, as shown in
Figure 3–17. Do not use metric equivalents for this purpose. Center this marking in the upper section of a
TLOF size/weight limitation box. If the TLOF does not have a weight limit, add a diagonal line,
extending from the lower left hand corner to the upper right hand corner, to the upper section of the TLOF
size/weight limitation box.
c. FATO markings.
(1) FATO perimeter marking.
(a) Paved FATOs. Define the perimeter of a paved FATO with a 12-inch (30 cm) wide
dashed white line. Define the corners of the FATO. The marking segments are approximately 5 feet (1.5
m) in length, and with end-to-end spacing of approximately 5 feet (1.5 m). See Figure 3–18.
(b) Unpaved FATOs. Mark the perimeter of an unpaved FATO with 12-inch (30 cm)
wide, flush in-ground markers. Define the corners of the FATO. They are approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) in
length, and with end-to-end spacing of approximately 5 feet (1 5 m). See Figure 3–18.
d. Flight path alignment guidance marking. An optional flight path alignment guidance
marking consists of one or more arrows to indicate the preferred approach/departure direction(s). Place it
on the TLOF, FATO and/or safety area surface as shown in Figure 3–9. The shaft of the arrow is 18
inches (50 cm) in width and at least 10 feet (3 m) in length. When combined with a flight path alignment
guidance lighting system described in paragraph 301.g, it takes the form shown in Figure 3–9, which
includes scheme for marking the arrowheads. Use a color that provides good contrast against the
background color of the surface. An arrow pointing toward the center of the TLOF depicts an approach
direction. An arrow pointing away from the center of the TLOF depicts a departure direction. In the case
of a flight path limited to a single departure path, the arrow marking is unidirectional. In the case of a
heliport with only a bidirectional approach /takeoff flight path available, the arrow marking is
bidirectional.
e. Taxiway and taxi route markings.
(1) Taxiway markings. Mark the centerline of a taxiway with a continuous 6-inch (15 cm)
yellow line. Mark both edges of the taxiway with two continuous 6- inch (15 cm) wide yellow lines
spaced 6 inches (15 cm) apart. Figure 3–11 illustrates taxiway centerline and edge markings.
(2) Taxiway to parking position transition requirements. For paved taxiways and parking
areas, taxiway centerline markings continue into parking positions and become the parking position
centerlines.
f. Helicopter parking position markings. Helicopter parking positions have the following
markings.
91
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
(1) Paved parking position identifications. Mark parking position identifications (numbers
or letters) if there is more than one parking position. These markings are yellow characters 36 inches (91
cm) high. See Figure 3–16 and Figure C–1.
(2) Rotor diameter circle. Define the circle of the RD of the largest helicopter that will park
at that position with a 6-inch (15 cm) wide, solid yellow line with an outside diameter of RD. See Figure
3–12.
(3) Touchdown/positioning circle (TDPC) marking. An optional TDPC marking provides
guidance to allow a pilot to touch down in a specific position on paved surfaces. When the pilot’s seat is
over the marking, the undercarriage will be inside the LBA, and all parts of the helicopter will be clear of
any obstacle by a safe margin. A TDPC marking is a yellow circle with an inner diameter of ½ D and a
line width of 18 in (46 cm). Locate a TDPC marking in the center of a parking area. See Figure 3–16. The
FAA recommends a TDPC marking for “turn-around” parking areas.
(4) Maximum length marking. This marking on paved surfaces indicates the D of the
largest helicopter that the position will accommodate (for example, 49). This marking is in yellow
characters at least 36 inches (91 cm) high. See Figure 3–17 and Figure C–1.
(5) Parking position weight limit. If a paved parking position has a weight limitation, mark
it in units of 1,000 lbs as illustrated in Figure 3–16. (A “12” indicates a weight-carrying capability of up
to 9,000 lbs. Do not use metric equivalents for this purpose.) This marking consists of yellow characters
36 inches (91 cm) high. When necessary to minimize the possibility of being misread, place a bar under
the number. See Figure 3–17 and Figure C–1.
(6) Shoulder line markings. Use optional shoulder line markings for paved parking areas
(Figure 3–12) to ensure safe rotor clearance. Locate a 6-inch (15 cm) wide solid yellow shoulder line,
perpendicular to the centerline and extending to the RD marking, so it is under the pilot’s shoulder. This
ensures the main rotor of the largest helicopter the position will accommodate will be entirely within the
rotor diameter parking circle. See Figure 3–16. The FAA recommends a shoulder line marking for “taxi
through” parking areas.
(7) Walkways. Figure 3–12 illustrates one marking scheme.
g. Closed heliport. Obliterate all markings of a permanently closed heliport, FATO, or TLOF.
If it is impractical to obliterate markings, place a yellow “X” over the “H”, as illustrated in Figure 3–19.
Make the yellow “X” large enough to ensure early pilot recognition that the heliport is closed. Remove
the wind cone(s) and other visual indications of an active heliport.
h. Marking sizes. See Appendix C for guidance on the proportions of painted numbers.
92
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
FATO EDGE MARKING REMOVED
WIND CONE REMOVED
OUT WITH A YELLOW X MARKING
PAINTED H MARKING CROSSED
Figure 3–19. Marking a Closed Heliport: Transport
315. Heliport lighting. For night operations, light the heliport with FATO and/or TLOF perimeter
lights as described below. Design flush light fixtures and installation methods to support point loads of
the design helicopter transmitted through a skid or wheel.
a. TLOF – perimeter lights. Use flush green lights meeting the requirements of FAA Airports
Engineering Brief 87, Heliport Perimeter Light for Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), to define
the TLOF perimeter. Use a minimum of four light fixtures per side of the TLOF. Locate a light is located
at each corner, with additional lights uniformly spaced between the corner lights. Using an odd number of
lights on each side will place lights along the centerline of the approach. Install lights at a maximum
spacing of 25 feet (7.6 m). Locate flush lights within 1 foot (30 cm) (inside or outside) of the TLOF
perimeter. Figure 3–20 and Figure 3–21 illustrate this lighting.
93
PREFERRED APPROACH C 5 APPROACH LIGHTS (OPTIONAL) L
SEE FIGURE 3-24 FOR DETAILS
FLUSH TLOF EDGE LIGHTS
GREEN IN-PAVEMENT
TAXIWAY CENTERLINE LIGHTS
LIGHTED WIND CONE
FLUSH TLOF EDGE LIGHTS
1 FT [30 CM]
FLUSH FATO EDGE LIGHTS
FLUSH IN-PAVEMENT LIGHT DETAIL
Notes:
1. Install flush FATO and TLOF perimeter lights inside or outside within 1ft [30 cm] of the FATO and TLOF
respective perimeters.
2. TLOF size and weight limitation box is not shown for clarity.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 3–20. TLOF and FATO Flush Perimeter Lighting: Transport
94
5 APPROACH LIGHTS (OPTIONAL)
PREFERRED APPROACH C SEE FIGURE 3-24 FOR DETAILS L
GREEN IN-PAVEMENT
TAXIWAY CENTERLINE LIGHTS
LIGHTED WIND CONE
SEE NOTE 2
FLUSH TLOF EDGE LIGHTS
RAISED FATO OMNIDIRECTIONAL
LIGHTS
Notes:
1. Install flush TLOF lights inside or outside ± 1 ft [30cm] of the TLOF perimeter.
2. Install raised FATO lights 10 ft [3 m] outside the FATO.
3. TLOF size and weight limitation box is not shown for clarity.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 3–21. FATO Raised and TLOF Flush Perimeter Lighting: Transport
95
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
b. Optional TLOF lights. As an option, install a line of 7 green, flush lights meeting the
standards of EB 87 spaced at 5-foot (1.5 m) intervals in the TLOF pavement. Align these lights on the
centerline of the approach course to provide close-in directional guidance and improve TLOF surface
definition. These lights are illustrated in Figure 3–22.
c. Ground level FATO perimeter lights. Use green lights meeting the requirements of EB 87
to define the limits of the FATO. Locate a light at each corner with additional lights uniformly spaced
between the corner lights with a maximum interval of 25 feet (8 m) between lights. Using an odd number
of lights on each side will place lights along the centerline of the approach. Locate flush lights within 1
foot (30 cm) inside or outside of the FATO perimeter. Mount raised light fixtures frangibly, no more than
8 inches (20 cm) high, and locate them 10 feet (3 m) out from the FATO perimeter. Make sure they do
not penetrate a horizontal plane at the FATO elevation by more than 2 inches (5 cm). See Figure 3–21 and
Figure 7–3.
d. Elevated FATO – perimeter lights. Lighting for an elevated FATO is the same as for a
ground level FATO. As an option, locate lights at the outside edge of the safety net, as shown in Figure
3–23. Make sure the raised lights do not penetrate a horizontal plane at the FATO elevation by more than
2 inches (5 cm). See Figure 7–3.
e. Floodlights. Use floodlights to illuminate the parking apron. If possible, mount these
floodlights on adjacent buildings to eliminate the need for tall poles. Take care, however, to place
floodlights clear of the TLOF, the FATO, the safety area, and the approach/departure surfaces and
transitional surfaces and ensure the floodlights and their associated hardware do not constitute an
obstruction hazard. Aim floodlights down to provide illumination on the apron surface. Make sure
floodlights that might interfere with pilot vision during takeoff and landings are capable of being turned
off by pilot control or at pilot request.
f. Landing direction lights. As an option when it is necessary to provide directional guidance,
install landing direction lights. Landing direction lights are a configuration of five green omnidirectional
lights meeting the standards of EB 87 on the centerline of the preferred approach/departure path. Space
these lights at 15-foot (4.6 m) intervals beginning at a point not less than 30 feet (9 m) and not more than
60 feet (18 m) from the TLOF perimeter and extending outward in the direction of the preferred
approach/departure path, as illustrated in Figure 3–24.
g. Flight path alignment lights. As an option, install flight path alignment lights meeting the
requirements of EB 87. Place them in a straight line along the direction of approach and/or departure
flight paths, extending as necessary across the TLOF, FATO, safety area or any suitable surface in the
immediate vicinity of the FATO or safety area. Install three or more green lights spaced at 5 feet (1.5 m)
to 10 feet (3.0 m). See Figure 3–9.
96
LEGEND
OPTIONAL GREEN FLUSH L-805A TYPE
TLOF LIGHTS ON 5 FT [1.5 M] CENTERS.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 3–22. Optional TLOF Lights: Transport
97
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
SAFETY NET
B
NOT LESS THAN 5 FT [1.5 M]
NOT MORE THAN
2 IN [5 CM]
12 IN [30 CM]
C A
(SURROUNDING
THE FATO)
Three possible locations for FATO edge lighting:
Flush edge fixtures
Omnidirectional light, mounted off FATO edge
Omnidirectional light, mounted off outer edge of safety net
A
B
C
FALL PROTECTION:
RECOMMENDED IF
ABOVE 30 IN [0.8 M]
REQUIRED IF
ABOVE 4 FT [1.2 M]
Figure 3–23. Elevated FATO – Perimeter Lighting: Transport
98
FATO
TLOF
NOT LESS THAN
30 FT [9 M]
NOR MORE THAN
60 FT [18 M]
4 EQUAL SPACES
@ 15 FT [4.6 M]
= 60 FT [18.4 M]
LEGEND
OMNIDIRECTIONAL GREEN LIGHTS
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 3–24. Landing Direction Lights: Transport
99
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
h. Taxiway and taxi route lighting.
(1) Taxiway centerline lights. Define taxiway centerlines with flush bidirectional green lights
meeting the standards of AC 150/5345-46, Specification for Runway and Taxiway Light Fixtures, for
type L-852A (straight segments) or L-852B (curved segments). Space these lights at maximum 50-foot
(15 m) longitudinal intervals on straight segments and at maximum 25-foot (7.6 m) intervals on curved
segments, with a minimum of four lights needed to define the curve. As an option, uniformly offset
taxiway centerline lights no more than two feet (0.6 m) to ease painting the taxiway centerline. Do not use
retroreflective markers.
(2) Taxiway edge lights. Use flush omnidirectional blue lights meeting the standards of
AC 150/5345-46 for type L-852T to mark the edges of a taxiway. Do not use retroreflective markers.
(a) Straight segments. Space lights at 50-foot (15.2 m) longitudinal intervals on straight
segments.
(b) Curved segments. Curved taxiway edges require shorter spacing of edge lights. Base
the spacing on the radius of the curve. AC 150/5340-30, Design and Installation Detail for Airport Visual
Aids shows the applicable spacing for curves. Space taxiway edge lights uniformly. On curved edges of
more than 30 degrees from point of tangency (PT) of the taxiway section to PT of the intersecting surface,
install have at least three edge lights. For radii not listed in AC 150/5340-30, determine spacing by linear
interpolation.
i. Heliport identification beacon. Install a heliport identification beacon. Locate the beacon,
flashing white/green/yellow at the rate of 30 to 45 flashes per minute, on or close to the heliport. Find
guidance on heliport beacons in AC 150/5345-12, Specification for Airport and Heliport Beacon.
316. Marking and lighting of difficult-to-see objects. It is difficult for a pilot to see unmarked wires,
antennas, poles, cell towers, and similar objects, even in the best daylight weather, in time to take evasive
action. While pilots can avoid such objects during en route operations by flying well above them,
approaches and departures require operations near the ground where obstacles may be a factor. This
paragraph discusses the marking and lighting of objects near, but outside and below the
approach/departure surface. Find guidance on marking and lighting objects in AC 70/7460-1, Obstruction
Marking and Lighting.
a. Airspace. If difficult-to-see objects penetrate the object identification surfaces illustrated in
Figure 3–25 and Figure 3–26, mark these objects to make them more conspicuous. If a heliport supports
operations between dusk and dawn, light these difficult-to-see objects. The object identification surfaces
in Figure 3–25 and Figure 3–26 are described as follows:
(1) In all directions from the safety area except under the approach/departure paths, the
object identification surface starts at the safety area perimeter and extends out horizontally for a distance
of 100 feet (30.5 m).
(2) Under the approach/departure surface, the object identification surface starts from the
outside edge of the FATO and extends horizontally out along the approach path for a distance of 800 feet
(244 m). From this point, the object identification surface extends out for an additional distance of
3,200 feet (975 m) along the approach path while rising on an 8:1 slope (8 units horizontal in 1 unit
vertical). From the point 800 feet (244 m) from the FATO perimeter, the object identification surface is
100 feet (30.5 m) beneath the approach/departure surface.
(3) The width of this object identification surface under the approach/departure surface
increases as a function of distance from the safety area. From the safety area perimeter, the object
identification surface extends laterally to a point 100 feet (30.5 m) outside the safety area perimeter. At
the upper end of the surface, the object identification surface extends laterally 200 feet (61 m) on either
side of the approach/departure path.
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
b. Shielding of objects. Title 14 CFR Part 77.9, Construction or alteration requiring notice,
provides that if there are a number of objects close together, it may not be necessary to mark all of them if
they are shielded. To meet the shielding guidelines part 77 requires that an object “be shielded by existing
structures of a permanent and substantial nature or by natural terrain or topographic features of equal or
greater height, and will be located in the congested area of a city, town, or settlement where the shielded
structure will not adversely affect safety in air navigation.”
(8:1 SLOPE)
APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
(8:1 SLOPE)
OBJECT IDENTIFICATION SURFACE
FATO
400 FT
[122 M]
100 FT
[30 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
3,200 FT [975 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
100 FT [30 M]
FROM EDGE
OF SAFETY AREA
100 FT [30 M] FROM EDGE OF SAFETY AREA
100 FT [30 M] R 200 FT
[61 M]
Figure 3–25. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended:
Straight Approach: Transport
101
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012 500 FT [152 M] 200 FT [61 M] 400 FT [122M] 100 FT [30 M] 500 FT [152 M] 100 FT [30 M] R 100 FT [30 M] FROM EDGE OF SAFETY AREA FATO 100 FT [30 M] FROM FATO EDGE OF SAFETY AREA (8:1 SLOPE) APPROACH/DEPARTURE
(8 1: SLOPE)
OBJECT IDENTIFICATION
800 FT [244 M]
3 2, 00 FT 9[ 75 M]
S
U
RFA
C
E
S
U
RFA
C
E
Figure 3–26. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended:
Curved Approach: Transport
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c. Equipment/object marking. Make heliport maintenance and servicing equipment, as well as
other objects used in the airside operational areas, conspicuous with paint, reflective paint, reflective tape,
or other reflective markings. Reference AC 150/5210-5, Painting, Marking, and Lighting of Vehicles
Used on an Airport.
317. Safety considerations. Consider the safety enhancements discussed below in the design of a
heliport. Address other areas, such as the effects of rotor downwash, based on site conditions and the
design helicopter.
a. Security. Provide a means to keep the operational areas of a heliport clear of people, animals,
and vehicles. Use a method to control access depending upon the helicopter location and types of
potential intruders.
(1) Safety barrier. At ground-level transport heliports, erect a safety barrier around the
helicopter operational areas in the form of a fence or a wall. Construct the barrier no closer to the
operation areas than the outer perimeter of the safety area. Make sure the barrier does not penetrate any
approach/departure (primary or transitional) surface. If necessary in the vicinity of the approach/departure
paths, install the barrier well outside the outer perimeter of the safety area.
(2) Make sure any barrier is high enough to present a positive barrier to persons inadvertently
entering an operational area and yet low enough to be non-hazardous to helicopter operations.
(3) Control access to airside areas with locked gates and doors. Display a cautionary sign
similar to that illustrated in Figure 3–27 on gates and doors.
b. Rescue and fire-fighting services. Heliports are subject to state and local rescue and firefighting
regulations. Provide a fire hose cabinet or extinguisher at each access gate and each fueling
location. At elevated TLOF/FATOs, locate fire hose cabinets, fire extinguishers, and other fire-fighting
equipment adjacent to, but below the level, of the TLOF/FATO. Find additional information in various
NFPA publications. For more reference material, see Appendix D.
c. Communications. Use a Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) radio to provide
arriving helicopters with heliport and traffic advisory information but do not use this radio to control air
traffic. Contact the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for information on CTAF licensing.
d. Weather information. An automated weather observing system (AWOS) measures and
automatically broadcasts current weather conditions at the heliport site. When installing an AWOS, locate
it at least 100 feet (30 m) and not more than 700 feet (213 m) from the TLOF and such that its
instruments will not be affected by rotor wash from helicopter operations. Find guidance on AWOS
systems in AC 150/5220-16, Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS) for Non-Federal
Applications, and FAA Order 6560.20, Siting Criteria for Automated Weather Observing Systems
(AWOS). Other weather observing systems will have different siting criteria.
e. Winter operations. Swirling snow raised by a helicopter’s rotor wash can cause the pilot to
lose sight of the intended landing point and/or hide objects that need to be avoided.. Design the heliport to
accommodate the methods and equipment to be used for snow removal. Design the heliport to allow the
snow to be removed sufficiently so it will not present an obstruction hazard to either the tail rotor or the
main rotor. Find guidance on winter operations in AC 150/5200-30, Airport Winter Safety and
Operations.
103
CAUTION
HELICOPTER LANDING
AREA
SAFETY
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
STAY CLEAR
APPROACH AND LEAVE HELICOPTER AS DIRECTED BY CREW OF THE
IN A CROUCHED MANNER WHEN ROTORS ARE TURNING TAIL ROTOR
INSTRUCTIONS
AUTHORIZED
PERSONNEL
ONLY
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 3–27. Caution Sign: Transport
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
318. Visual glideslope indicators (VGSI). A visual glideslope indicator (VGSI) provides pilots with
visual vertical course and descent cues. Install the VGSI such that the lowest on-course visual signal
provides a minimum of 1 degree of clearance over any object that lies within 10 degrees of the approach
course centerline.
a. Siting. The optimum location of a VGSI is on the extended centerline of the approach path at
a distance that brings the helicopter to a hover with the undercarriage between 3 and 8 feet (0.9 to 2.4 m)
above the TLOF. Figure 3–28 illustrates VGSI clearance criteria. To properly locate the VGSI, estimate
the vertical distance from the undercarriage to the pilot’s eye.
b. Control of the VGSI. As an option, allow the VGSI to be pilot controllable such that it is
“on” only when needed.
c. VGSI needed. A VGSI is an optional feature. However, provide a VGSI if one or more of
the following conditions exist, especially at night:
(1) Obstacle clearance, noise abatement, or traffic control procedures require a particular
slope to be flown.
(2) The environment of the heliport provides few visual surface cues.
d. Additional guidance. AC 150/5345-52, Generic Visual Glideslope Indicators (GVGI), and
AC 150/5345-28, Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) Systems, provide additional guidance.
105
LOWER LIMIT OF THE ON-COURSE SIGNAL
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE REFERENCE LINE
LOWER LIMIT OF THE ON-COURSE SIGNAL
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE REFERENCE LINE
10°
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
PLANE
COURSE CENTERLINE
VISUAL GLIDESLOPE
INDICATOR (VGSI)
10°
CRITICAL
OBJECT
1° MINIMUM CLEARANCE
VISUAL GLIDESLOPE
INDICATOR (VGSI)
VARIABLE SEE DETAIL BELOW
PILOT’S EYES
VISUAL GLIDESLOPE
INDICATOR (VGSI)
3 FT TO 8 FT
[1 M TO 2.4 M]
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 3–28. Visual Glideslope Indicator Siting and Clearance Criteria: Transport
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
319. Terminal facilities.
a. Design considerations. A heliport terminal provides curbside access for passengers using
private autos, taxicabs, and public transit vehicles. Public waiting areas need the usual amenities, and a
counter for rental car services may be desirable. Design passenger auto parking areas to accommodate
current requirements, with the ability to expand them to meet future requirements. Readily available
public transportation may reduce the requirement for employee and service personnel auto parking
spaces. Build attractive and functional heliport terminal buildings or sheltered waiting areas. Find
guidance on designing terminal facilities in AC 150/5360-9, Planning and Design of Airport Terminal
Building Facilities at Non-Hub Locations.
b. Security. Unless screening was carried out at the helicopter passengers’ departure location,
Transportation Security Administration regulations may require that a screening area and/or screening be
provided before passengers enter the airport’s secured areas. If needed, provide multiple helicopter
parking positions and/or locations in the terminal area to service helicopter passenger and/or cargo
interconnecting needs. Find information about passenger screening at the Transportation Security
Administration web site (http://www.tsa.gov/public/).
320. Zoning and compatible land use. Where state and local statutes permit, the FAA encourages
transport heliport operators to promote the adoption of the following zoning measures to ensure the
heliport will continue to be available for public use and to protect the community’s investment in the
facility.
a. Zoning to limit building/object heights. Find general guidance on drafting an ordinance that
would limit building and object heights in AC 150/5190-4, A Model Zoning Ordinance to Limit Height of
Objects Around Airports. Substitute the heliport surfaces for the airport surfaces described in the model
ordinance.
b. Zoning for compatible land use. The FAA encourages public agencies to enact zoning
ordinances to control the use of property within the HPZ and the approach/departure path environment,
restricting activities to those that are compatible with helicopter operations. See paragraph 310.
c. Air rights and property easements. Use air rights and property easements as options to
prevent the encroachment of obstacles in the vicinity of a heliport.
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Chapter 4. Hospital Heliports
401. General. Helicopters are often used to transport injured persons from the scene of an accident to
a hospital and to transfer patients from one hospital to another. A hospital heliport accommodates
helicopters used by Emergency Medical Services. In some emergencies, a hospital heliport may
accommodate large military helicopters.
402. Applicability. The standards in this chapter apply to projects funded under the Airport
Improvement Program (AIP) or Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) program. For other projects/heliports,
these standards are the FAA’s recommendations for designing all hospital heliports. This chapter
highlights issues that are unique to hospital heliports and issues for which the design standards are
different than those recommended for other general aviation heliports, but also includes standards that are
common to other general aviation heliports. These standards address the design of a heliport that will
accommodate air ambulance helicopter operations and emergency medical service (EMS) personnel and
equipment. These standards are based on the understanding that pilots landing at the heliport are familiar
with the facility. However, the heliport operator assumes the responsibility of ensuring the necessary
information is readily available to pilots. Alternately, the heliport operator may choose to build the
heliport to full general aviation standards. The design standards in this chapter assume there will never be
more than one helicopter within the final approach and takeoff area (FATO) and the associated safety
area. If there is a need for more than one touchdown and lift-off area (TLOF) at a heliport, locate each
TLOF within its own FATO. Consider the feasibility of accommodating large military helicopters that
might be used in an emergency.
403. Access by individuals with disabilities. Various laws require heliports operated by public
entities and those receiving federal financial assistance to meet accessibility requirements. See paragraph
114.
404. Heliport site selection.
a. Planning. Public agencies and others planning to develop a hospital heliport are encouraged
to select a site capable of supporting instrument operations, future expansion, and military helicopters that
will be used in disaster relief efforts.
b. Property requirements. A functional hospital heliport may be as simple as a cleared area on
the ground, together with a wind cone and a clear approach/departure path. Figure 4–1 illustrates the
essential elements of a ground-level hospital heliport.
c. Turbulence. Air flowing around and over buildings, stands of trees, terrain irregularities, etc.
can create turbulence on ground-level and roof-top heliports that may affect helicopter operations. Where
the FATO is located near the edge and top of a building or structure, or within the influence of turbulent
wakes from other buildings or structures, assess the turbulence and airflow characteristics in the vicinity
of, and across the surface of the FATO to determine if an air-gap between the roof, roof parapet or
supporting structure, and/or some other turbulence mitigating design measure is necessary. FAA
Technical Report FAA/RD-84/25, Evaluating Wind Flow Around Buildings on Heliport Placement,
addresses the wind’s effect on helicopter operations. Take the following actions in selecting a site to
minimize the effects of turbulence.
(1) Ground-level heliports. Features such buildings, trees, and other large objects can cause
air turbulence and affect helicopter operations from sites immediately adjacent to them. Therefore, locate
the landing and takeoff area away from such objects in order to minimize air turbulence in the vicinity of
the FATO and the approach/departure paths.
109
LIGHTED WIND CONE
TLOF PERIMETER
SECURITY FENCE MARKING
SAFETY AREA
APPROACH/
DEPARTURE
FATO EDGE MARKING SURFACE
APPROACH/
DEPARTURE
HOSPITAL MARKING: SURFACE RED “H”
WHITE CROSS
WARNING SIGNS:
“DO NOT ENTER WHEN
HELICOPTER IS PRESENT”
Note: Locate the security fence and wind cone so that they will not interfere
with the approach/departure path or transitional surface.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
(2) Elevated heliports. Establishing a 6 foot (1.8 m) or more air gap on all sides above the
level of the roof will generally minimize the turbulent effect of air flowing over the roof edge. If an air
gap is included in the design, keep it free at all times of objects that would obstruct the airflow. If it is not
practical to include an air gap or some other turbulence mitigating design measure where there is
turbulence, operational limitations may need to be considered under certain wind conditions. See
paragraph 101.
d. Electromagnetic effects. Nearby electromagnetic devices, such as a magnetic resonance
imaging machine (MRI), large ventilator motor, elevator motor, or other large electrical consumer may
cause temporary aberrations in the helicopter magnetic compass and interfere with other onboard
navigational equipment. Be alert to the location of any MRI with respect to the heliport location. A
warning sign alerting pilots to the presence of an MRI is recommended. Take steps to inform pilots of the
locations of MRIs and other similar equipment. For additional information, see FAA Technical Report
FAA/RD-92/15, Potential Hazards of Magnetic Resonance Imagers to Emergency Medical Service
Helicopter Services.
Figure 4–1. Essential Features of a Ground-level Hospital Heliport: Hospital
110
FATO
B
E
F
A C
G
DIM
C
E
F
ITEM VALUE
G see Table 4-1
NOTES
A
B
TLOF
40 ft [12 m]
40 ft [12 m]
1 RD but not less than Minimum TLOF Length
Minimum TLOF Width
Minimum Safety Area Width
Minimum Separation
Between the Perimeters
of the TLOF and FATO
1 RD but not less than
Minimum FATO Width
Minimum FATO Length
See Paragraph 406.b.(1)
above 1,000 ft
for adjustments of elevations
SAFETY AREA
Note: For a circular TLOF and FATO, dimensions A, B, C and E refer to diameters.
1 1
2 D
1 1
2 D
3 4 D – 1
2 RD
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–2. TLOF/FATO Safety Area Relationships and Minimum Dimension: Hospital
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
405. Basic layout. The heliport consists of a TLOF contained within a FATO. A safety area surrounds
the FATO. The relationship of the TLOF to the FATO and the safety area is shown in Figure 4–2. A
FATO contains only one TLOF. Provide appropriate approach/departure airspace to allow safe
approaches to and departures from landing sites. To the extent feasible, align the preferred
approach/departure path with the predominant winds. See paragraph 409.
406. Touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF).
a. TLOF location. TLOFs of hospital heliports are at ground level, on an elevated structure, or
at rooftop level. Center the TLOF within the FATO.
b. TLOF size. The minimum TLOF dimension (length, width, or diameter) is equal to the rotor
diameter (RD) of the design helicopter but not less than 40 feet (12 m). Design the TLOF to be
rectangular or circular. Each design shape has its advantages. A square or rectangular shape provides the
pilot with better alignment cues than a circular shape, but a circular TLOF may be more recognizable in
an urban environment. Increasing the load-bearing area (LBA) centered on the TLOF may provide some
safety and operational advantages. Increasing the TLOF dimensions may enhance safety factors and/or
operational efficiency.
(1) Elevated hospital heliport. If the FATO outside the TLOF is non-load-bearing, increase
the minimum width, length or diameter of the TLOF to the overall length (D) of the design helicopter.
(2) Elongated TLOF. An elongated TLOF can provide an increased safety margin and
greater operational flexibility. As an option, design an elongated TLOF with a landing position in the
center and two takeoff positions, one at either end, as illustrated in Figure 4–3. Design the landing
position to have a minimum length of the RD of the design helicopter. If the TLOF is elongated, also
provided an elongated FATO.
c. Ground-level TLOF surface characteristics.
(1) Design loads. Design the TLOF and any supporting TLOF structure to be capable of
supporting the dynamic loads of the design helicopter.
(2) Paving. The standard for the TLOF surface is either paved or aggregate-turf (see AC
150/5370-10, Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports items P-217 and P-501). Use portland
cement concrete (PCC) when feasible for ground-level facilities. An asphalt surface is less desirable for
heliports as it may rut under the wheels or skids of a parked helicopter. This has been a factor in some
rollover accidents. Use a broomed or roughened pavement finish to provide a skid-resistant surface for
helicopters and non-slippery footing for people.
d. Rooftop and other elevated TLOFs.
(1) Design loads. Design elevated TLOFs and any TLOF supporting structure to be capable
of supporting the dynamic loads of the design helicopter.
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
DIM
C
E
ITEM VALUE
F see Table 4-1
NOTES
A but not less then 40 ft [12 m]
B
A
B
C
E
F
E
F
TAKEOFF POSITION
TAKEOFF POSITION
Minimum TLOF Width
Minimum Safety Area Width
Minimum Separation
Between the Perimeters
of the TLOF and FATO
1 RD
1 RD
Minimum FATO Width
but not less then 40 ft [12 m] Position Length
Minimum TLOF/Landing
FATO
LANDING POSITION
TLOF
SAFETY AREA
Note: For a circular TLOF and FATO, dimensions A, B, C and E refer to diameters.
1 1
2 D
3 4 D – 1
2 RD
Figure 4–3. Elongated FATO with Two Takeoff Positions: Hospital
(2) Elevation. Elevate the TLOF above the level of any obstacle in the FATO and safety area
that cannot be removed. Exception: Edge restraints of minimal height (no higher than 4 inches) on ramps
may project above the elevation of the edge of the TLOF.
(3) Obstructions. Elevator penthouses, cooling towers, exhaust vents, fresh-air vents, and
other raised features can affect heliport operations. Establish control mechanisms to ensure obstruction
hazards are not installed after the heliport is operational.
(4) Air Quality. Helicopter exhaust can affect building air quality if the heliport is too close
to fresh air vents. When designing a building intended to support a helipad, locate fresh air vents
accordingly. When adding a helipad to an existing building, relocate fresh air vents if necessary or, if
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
relocation is not practical, installing charcoal filters or a fresh air intake bypass louver system for HVAC
systems may be adequate.
(5) TLOF surface characteristics. Construct rooftop and other elevated heliport TLOFs of
metal, concrete, or other materials subject to local building codes. Use a finish for TLOF surfaces that
provides a skid-resistant surface for helicopters and non-slippery footing for people.
(6) Safety net. If the platform is elevated 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above its surroundings, Title
29 CFR Part 1910.23, Guarding Floor and Wall Openings and Holes, requires the provision of fall
protection. The FAA recommends such protection for all platforms elevated 30 inches (76 cm) or more.
However, do not use permanent railings or fences since they would be safety hazards during helicopter
operations. As an option, install a safety net, meeting state and local regulations but not less than 5 feet
(1.5 m) wide. Design the safety net to have a load carrying capability of 25 lbs/sq ft (122 kg/sq m). Make
sure the net, as illustrated in Figure 4–29, does not project above the level of the TLOF. Fasten both the
inside and outside edges of the safety net to a solid structure. Construct nets of materials that are resistant
to environmental effects.
(7) Access to elevated TLOFs. Title 29 CFR Part 1926.34, Means of Egress requires two
separate access points for an elevated structure such as an elevated TLOF. Provide access to and from the
TLOF via a ramp in order to provide for quick and easy transportation of a patient on a gurney. Build
ramps in accordance with state and local requirements. Design the width of the ramp, and any turns in the
ramp, to be wide enough to accommodate a gurney with a person walking on each side. Design straight
segments of the ramp to be at least 6 feet (1.8 m) wide. Additional width may be required in the turns.
Provide the ramp with a slip-resistant surface, with a slope no steeper than 12:1 (12 units horizontal in 1
unit vertical). While it is possible to move a gurney to and from the TLOF using a lift, avoid this, since it
invariably results in a delay in the movement of patients in time-critical conditions. Design stairs in
compliance with Title 29 CFR Part 1910.24, Fixed Industrial Stairs. Design handrails required by this
standard to fold down or be removable to below the level of the TLOF so they will not be hazards during
helicopter operations.
e. TLOF gradients. Recommended TLOF gradients are defined in Chapter 7.
407. Final approach and takeoff area (FATO). A hospital heliport has at least one FATO. The
FATO contains a TLOF within its borders at which arriving helicopters terminate their approach and from
which departing helicopters take off.
a. FATO location. FATOs of hospital heliports are at ground level, on an elevated structure, or
on a rooftop. To avoid or minimize the need for additional ground transport, locate the FATO to provide
ready access to the hospital’s emergency room, but such that buildings and other objects are outside the
safety area and below obstacle clearance surfaces. The relationship of the FATO to the TLOF and the
safety area is shown in Figure 4–2.
b. FATO size.
(1) Design the FATO so its minimum width, length, or diameter is 1½ times the overall
length (D) of the design helicopter. Design the FATO to be circular or rectangular, regardless of the shape
of the TLOF. At elevations above 1,000 feet MSL, include a longer FATO to provide an increased safety
margin and greater operational flexibility. Use the additional FATO length as depicted in Figure 4–4.
(2) Design the minimum distance between the TLOF perimeter and the FATO perimeter to
be not less than ¾ D – ½ RD, where D is the overall length and RD is the rotor diameter of the design
helicopter. Note that if the TLOF and FATO are not of similar shape, this applies at all points of the
TLOF perimeter. The relationship of the TLOF to the FATO and the safety area is shown in Figure 4–2.
114
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
300
200
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
90
60
30
ADDITION TO FATO LENGTH IN FEET
ADDITION TO FATO LENGTH IN METERS
SITE ELEVATION (IN THOUSANDS OF FEET)
Example: 80 feet is added to the basic FATO length for a site elevation of 3,200 feet.
Figure 4–4. Additional FATO Length for Heliports at Higher Elevation: Hospital
c. FATO Surface characteristics. If the heliport operator marks the TLOF, the FATO outside
the TLOF need not be load-bearing.
(1) Ground-level hospital heliports. If the heliport operator does not mark the TLOF,
and/or intends that the helicopter be able to land anywhere within the FATO, design the FATO outside
the TLOF and any FATO supporting structure, like the TLOF, to be capable of supporting the dynamic
loads of the design helicopter.
(2) Elevated hospital heliports. The FATO outside the TLOF may extend into clear
airspace. However, there are some helicopter performance benefits and increased operational flexibility if
the FATO outside the TLOF is load bearing. Design the FATO outside of the TLOF to be load-bearing
unless the minimum width and length or diameter of TLOF is increased to the overall length of the design
helicopter.
(3) If the FATO is load bearing, design the portion abutting the TLOF to be contiguous with
the TLOF, with the adjoining edges at the same elevation.
(4) If the FATO is unpaved, treat the FATO to prevent loose stones and any other flying
debris caused by rotor downwash.
(5) When the FATO or the LBA in which it is located is elevated 4 feet (1.2 m) or more
above its surroundings, part 1910.23 requires the provision of fall protection. The FAA recommends such
protection for all platforms elevated 30 inches (76 cm) or more. However, do not use permanent railings
or fences, since they would be safety hazards during helicopter operations. As an option, install a safety
net, meeting state and local regulations but not less than 5 feet (1.5 m) wide. Design the safety net to have
a load carrying capability of 25 lbs/sq ft (122 kg/sq m). Make sure the net, as illustrated in Figure 4–29,
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
does not project above the level of the TLOF. Fasten both the inside and outside edges of the safety net to
a solid structure. Construct nets of materials that are resistant to environmental effects.
d. Mobile objects within the FATO. The FATO design standards in this AC assume the FATO
is closed to other aircraft if a helicopter or other mobile object is within the FATO or the associated safety
area.
e. Fixed objects within the FATO. Remove all fixed objects projecting above the FATO
elevation except for lighting fixtures, which may project a maximum of 2 inches (5 cm). See Figure 7–3.
For ground level heliports, remove all above-ground objects to the extent practicable.
f. FATO/FATO separation. If a heliport has more than one FATO, separate the perimeters of
the two FATOs so the respective safety areas do not overlap. This separation assumes simultaneous
approach/departure operations will not take place. If the heliport operator intends for the facility to
support simultaneous operations, provide a minimum 200 foot (61 m) separation.
g. FATO gradients. Recommended FATO gradients are defined in Chapter 7.
408. Safety area. A safety area surrounds a FATO.
a. Safety area width. The standards for the width of the safety area are shown in Table 4-1. The
width is the same on all sides. The provision or absence of standard heliport markings affects the width
standards. As an option, design the safety area to extend into clear airspace.
b. Mobile objects within the safety area. The safety area design standards of this AC assume
the TLOF and FATO are closed to other aircraft if a helicopter or other mobile object is within the FATO
or the safety area.
c. Fixed objects within a safety area. Remove all fixed objects within a safety area projecting
above the FATO elevation except for lighting fixtures, which may project a maximum of 2 inches (5 cm).
See Figure 7–3. For ground level heliports, remove all above-ground objects to the extent practicable.
d. Safety area surface. The safety area need not be load bearing. Figure 4–5 depicts a non-loadbearing
safety area. If possible, design the portion of the safety area abutting the FATO to be contiguous
with the FATO with the adjoining edges at the same elevation. This is needed in order to avoid the risk of
catching a helicopter skid or wheel. Clear the safety area of flammable materials and treat the area to
prevent loose stones and any other flying debris caused by rotor wash.
e. Safety gradients. Recommended safety area gradients are defined in Chapter 7.
Table 4-1. Minimum VFR Safety Area Width as a Function of Hospital Heliport Markings
TLOF Perimeter Marked Yes Yes No No
FATO Perimeter Marked Yes Yes Yes Yes
Standard Hospital Marking
Symbol Yes No Yes No
Hospital heliports
1
/3 RD but
not less than
10 ft (3 m)**
1
/3 RD but
not less than
20 ft (6 m)**
½ D but
not less than
20 ft (6 m)
½ D but
not less than
30 ft (9 m)
D: overall length of the design helicopter
RD: rotor diameter of the design helicopter
** Also applies when the heliport operator does not mark the FATO. Do not mark the FATO if (a) the FATO
(or part of the FATO) is a non-load bearing surface and/or (b) the TLOF is elevated above the level of a
surrounding load bearing area.
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
HELIPORT BEACON
LIGHTED WIND CONE
FATO RAISED TLOF
5 FT [1.5 M] WIDE
SAFETY NET
SAFETY AREA
FLUSH TLOF
LIGHTING
RAMP
POST AT PERSONNEL ENTRANCE
CAUTION
HELICOPTER LANDING
AREA
SAFETY
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
STAY CLEAR
APPROACH AND LEAVE HELICOPTER AS DIRECTED BY CREW OF THE
IN A CROUCHED MANNER WHEN ROTORS ARE TURNING TAIL ROTOR
Notes:
INSTRUCTIONS
1. See Figure 4-29, elevated TLOF perimeter lighting, for AUTHORIZED
PERSONNEL
detailed views of the safety net and lighting. ONLY
Figure 4–5. Rooftop Hospital Heliport: Hospital
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
409. VFR approach/departure paths. The purpose of approach/departure airspace as shown in
Figure 4–6 is to provide sufficient airspace clear of hazards to allow safe approaches to and departures
from the TLOF.
a. Number of approach/departure paths. Align preferred approach/departure paths with the
predominant wind direction so downwind operations are avoided and crosswind operations are kept to a
minimum. To accomplish this, design the heliport to have more than one approach/departure path. Base
other approach/departure paths on the assessment of the prevailing winds or, when this information is not
available, separate such flight paths and the preferred flight path by at least 135 degrees. (See Figure 4–6.)
Designing a hospital heliport to have only a single approach/departure path is an undesirable option. A
second flight path provides additional safety margin and operational flexibility. If it is not feasible to
provide complete coverage of wind through multiple approach/departure paths, operational limitations
may be necessary under certain wind conditions. See paragraph 101.
b. VFR approach/departure and transitional surfaces. Figure 4–6 illustrates the
approach/departure and transitional surfaces.
(1) An approach/departure surface is centered on each approach/departure path. The
approach/departure path starts at the edge of the FATO and slopes upward at 8:1 (8 units horizontal in 1
unit vertical) for a distance of 4,000 feet (1,219 m) where the width is 500 feet (152 m) at a height of 500
feet (152 m) above the heliport elevation.
(2) The transitional surfaces start from the edges of the FATO parallel to the flight path
center line, and from the outer edges of approach/departure surface, and extend outwards at a slope of 2:1
(2 units horizontal in 1 unit vertical) for a distance of 250 feet (76 m) from the centerline. The transitional
surface is not applied on the FATO edge opposite the approach/departure surface. See Figure 4–6.
(3) Make sure the approach/departure and transitional surfaces are free of penetrations unless
an FAA aeronautical study determines such penetrations not to be hazards. The FAA conducts such
aeronautical studies only at public heliports; heliports operated by a federal agency or the Department of
Defense; and private airports with FAA-approved approach procedures. Paragraph 111 provides
additional information on hazards to air navigation.
(4) At hospital heliports, an alternative to considering transitional surfaces is to increase the
size of the 8:1 approach/departure surface for a distance of 2,000 feet (610 m) as shown in Figure 2–9 and
Figure 2–11. The lateral extensions on each side of the 8:1 approach/departure surface start at the width of
the FATO and increase so at a distance of 2,000 feet (610 m) from the FATO they are 100 feet (30 m)
wide. Make sure obstacles do not penetrate into both Area A and Area B. Make sure obstacles do not
penetrate into Area A or Area B unless the FAA determines that the penetration is not a hazard. Mark or
light all such penetrations. See paragraph 111 for more information on hazard determinations.
c. Curved VFR approach/departure paths. As an option, include one curve in VFR
approach/departure paths. As an option, design these paths to use the airspace above public lands, such as
freeways or rivers. When including a curved portion in the approach/departure path, make sure the sum of
the radius of the arc defining the center line and the length of the straight portion originating at the FATO
is not less than 1,886 feet (575 m). Design the approach/departure path so the minimum radius of the
curve is 886 feet (270 m) and that the curve follows a 1,000 feet (305 m) straight section. Design the
approach/departure path so the combined length of the center line of the curved portion and the straight
portion is 4,000 feet (1,219 m). See Figure 4–7. Figure 4–9 shows a curved approach/departure path for
an 8:1 approach/departure surface.
118
FATO
PREDOMINATE WIND DIRECTION
SURFACE BASED UPON THE
PREFERRED APPROACH/DEPARTURE
APPROACH/
DEPARTURE
SURFACE
(TYPICAL)
SEE DETAIL
OPPOSITE
HELIPORT
135°
SHADED AREA
TO HAVE SAME
CHARACTERISTICS
AS FATO
250 FT [76 M]
500 FT [152 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
4,000 FT
[1,219 M]
LEGEND
8:1 Approach/Departure
Surface
250 FT FATO
[76 M] 2:1 Transitional Surface
500 FT
[152 M]
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–6. VFR Heliport Approach/Departure and Transitional Surfaces: Hospital
119
500 FT
[152 M]
1,000 FT [305 M]
R = 886 FT
[270 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
R = 1,886 FT [575 M]
Legend:
8:1 Approach/Departure
Surface
2:1 Transitional Surface
Notes:
1. Any combination of straight portions and one curved portion may be established using the following formula:
S + R 1,886 ft [575 m] and R 886 ft [270 m], where S is the length of the straight portion(s) and R is the
radius of the turn. Note that any combination 1,886 ft [575 m] will work.
2. The minimum total length of the centerline of the straight and curved portion is 4,000 ft [1,219 m].
3. Helicopter take-off performance may be reduced in a curve. Consider a straight portion along the
take-off climb surface prior to the start of the curve to allow for acceleration.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 4–7. Curved Approach/Departure: Hospital
120
P
E
8 1: AP
P
ROAC
H
D/ E
ART
U
R
E
S
U
R
FAC
Penetration(s) of A or B area but not both areas allowed
if marked or lighted and if not considered a hazard
100 FT [30 M]
A
FATO
500 FT APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE 8:1 [152 M]
B 100 FT [30 M] 2,000 FT [610 M]
4,000 FT [1,219 M]
PLAN VIEW
2,000 FT [610 M]
500 FT
[ 152 M]
FATO
250 FT [76 M] ELEVATION VIEW
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–8. VFR Heliport Lateral Extension of the 8:1 Approach / Departure Surface: Hospital
121
2,000 FT [610 M]
A
SEE NOTE 2 100 FT [30 M]
8:1 APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE 1,000 FT [305 M]
B
500 FT [153 M] 886 FT [272 M] RADIUS
A
SEE NOTE 2
100 FT [30 M]
B
1886 FT [575 M]
RADIUS
8:1 APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE
500 FT [153 M] Notes:
1. The approach surface may consist of one curved portion preceded and/or followed by one straight portion
such that: S + R 1,886 ft [575 m] and R 886 ft [270 m], where S is the length of the straight portion(s)
and R is the radius of the turn. Note that any combination 1,886 ft [575 m] will work.
2. The minimum total length of the centerline of the straight and curved portions is 4,000 ft [1,219 m].
3. Helicopter take-off performance may be reduced in a curve. Consider a straight portion along the
take-off climb surface prior to the start of the curve to allow for acceleration.
4. Penetration(s) of A or B area but not both areas allowed if marked or lighted and if not considered a hazard.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 4–9. VFR Heliport Lateral Extension of the Curved
8:1 Approach/Departure Surface: Hospital
122
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
d. Flight path alignment guidance. As an option, use flight path alignment markings and/or
flight path alignment lights (see paragraphs 414 and 415) where it is desirable and practicable to indicate
available approach and/or departure flight path direction(s). See Figure 4–10.
e. Periodic review of obstructions. Vigilant heliport operators reexamine obstacles in the
vicinity of approach/departure paths on at least an annual basis. This reexamination includes an appraisal
of the growth of trees near approach and departure paths. Paragraph 111 provides additional information
on hazards to air navigation. Pay particular attention to obstacles that need to be marked or lighted. It may
be helpful to maintain a list of the GPS coordinates and the peak elevation of obstacles.
410. Heliport protection zone (HPZ) The FAA recommends the establishment of an HPZ for each
approach/departure surface. The HPZ is the area under the 8:1 approach/departure surface starting at the
FATO perimeter and extending out for a distance of 280 feet (85.3 m), as illustrated in Figure 4–11. The
HPZ is intended to enhance the protection of people and property on the ground. This is achieved through
heliport owner control over the HPZ. Such control includes clearing HPZ areas (and maintaining them
clear) of incompatible objects and activities. The FAA discourages residences and places of public
assembly in an HPZ. (Churches, schools, hospitals, office buildings, shopping centers, and other uses
with similar concentrations of persons typify places of public assembly.) Do not locate hazardous
materials, including fuel, in the HPZ.
411. Wind cone.
a. Specification. Use a wind cone conforming to AC 150/5345-27, Specification for Wind Cone
Assemblies, to show the direction and magnitude of the wind. Use a color that provides the best possible
color contrast to its background.
b. Wind cone location. Locate the wind cone so it provides the pilot with valid wind direction
and speed information in the vicinity of the heliport under all wind conditions.
(1) At many landing sites, there may be no single, ideal location for the wind cone. At other
sites, it may not be possible to site a wind cone at the ideal location. In such cases, install more than one
wind cone in order to provide the pilot with all the wind information needed for safe operations.
(2) Place the wind cone so a pilot on the approach path is able to see it clearly when the
helicopter is 500 feet (150 m) from the TLOF.
(3) Place the wind cone so pilots can see it from the TLOF.
(4) To avoid presenting an obstruction hazard, locate the wind cone(s) outside the safety
area, so it does not penetrate the approach/departure or transitional surfaces.
c. Wind cone lighting. For night operations, illuminate the wind cone, either internally or
externally, to ensure it is clearly visible.
123
BIDIRECTIONAL AND SINGLE FLIGHT PATHS
SAFETY AREA
SINGLE FLIGHT
PATH MARKING
FATO
BIDIRECTIONAL
FLIGHT PATH MARKING
TLOF
SEE DETAIL A
10 FT [3.0 M] 5 FT [1.5 M] MINIMUM
1.5 FT
[0.46 M]
LIGHTS (3 MINIMUM) 5 FT
5 – 10 FT [1.5 M] [1.5 – 3.0 M] SPACING
DETAIL A FLIGHT PATH ALIGNMENT MARKING DETAIL
Notes (arrow): Notes (lights):
1. Arrowheads have constant 1. Light type: omnidirectional green lights
dimensions
2. If necessary, locate lights outside arrow
2. If necessary, adjust stroke length to match length
available (Minimum length: 10 ft [3 m])
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 4–10. Flight Path Alignment Marking and Lights: Hospital
124
8:1 APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
HELIPORT
PROTECTION ZONE
280 FT [85 M]
AT GROUND LEVEL
8:1 APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
SAFETY AREA
FATO
TLOF
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
2:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE
FATO
HELIPORT
PROTECTION ZONE
280 FT [85 M]
AT GROUND LEVEL
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–11. Heliport Protection Zone: Hospital
125
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
412. Taxiways and taxi routes. Taxiways and taxi routes provide for the movement of helicopters
from one part of a landing facility to another. They provide a connecting path between the FATO and a
parking area. They also provide a maneuvering aisle within the parking area. A taxi route includes the
taxiway plus the appropriate clearances needed on both sides. The relationship between a taxiway and a
taxi route is illustrated in Figure 4–12, Figure 4–13, and Figure 4–14. At hospital heliports with no
parking or refueling area outside the TLOF(s), it is not necessary to provide a taxi route or taxiway.
a. Taxiway/taxi route widths. The dimensions of taxiways and taxi routes are a function of
helicopter size, taxiway/taxi route marking, and type of taxi operations (ground taxi versus hover taxi).
These dimensions are defined in Table 4-2. Normally, the requirement for hover taxi dictates the
taxiway/taxi route widths. However, when the fleet comprises a combination of large ground taxiing
helicopters and smaller air taxiing helicopters, the larger aircraft may dictate the taxiway/taxi route
widths. If wheel-equipped helicopters taxi with wheels not touching the surface, design the facility with
hover taxiway widths rather than ground taxiway widths. Where the visibility of the centerline marking
cannot be guaranteed at all times, such as locations where snow or dust commonly obscure the centerline
marking and it is not practical to remove it, determine the minimum taxiway/taxi route dimensions as if
there was no centerline marking.
b. Surfaces. For ground taxiways, provide a surface that is portland cement concrete, asphalt, or a
surface, such as turf, stabilized in accordance with the standards of Item P-217 of AC 150/5370-10. For
unpaved portions of taxiways and taxi routes, provide a turf cover or treat the surface in some way to
prevent dirt and debris from being raised by a taxiing helicopter’s rotor wash.
c. Gradients. Taxiway and taxi route gradient standards are defined in Chapter 7.
126
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
PAVED TAXIWAY WIDTH
NOT LESS THAN TWO TIMES
THE UNDERCARRIAGE WIDTH
OF THE DESIGN HELICOPTER
TAXIWAY EDGE MARKING:
TWO CONTINUOUS 6 IN [15 CM]
YELLOW LINES SPACED 6 IN [15 CM] APART
TAXI ROUTE WIDTH
SEE TABLE 4-2 FOR
TAXIWAY/TAXI ROUTE WIDTH
TAXIWAY CENTERLINE MARKING:
CONTINUOUS 6 IN [15 CM] YELLOW LINE
Figure 4–12. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship – Paved Taxiway: Hospital
127
TAXIWAY RAISED EDGE MARKERS
SPACING: 15 FT [4.6 M] ON STRAIGHT SEGMENTS
10 FT [3.0 M] ON CURVED SEGMENTS
UNPAVED TAXIWAY WIDTH
1 RD BUT NOT MORE
THAN 35 FT [10.7 M]
TAXIWAY/TAXI
ROUTE WIDTH
SEE TABLE 4-2
4 IN [10 CM] DIA X
6 IN [15 CM] HIGH MAX
CYLINDER ON A
2 IN [5 CM] SUPPORT 12 IN [30 CM] MIN DIA DISC
AT GRADE OR
NOT TO EXCEED 3 IN [7 CM]
TAXIWAY RAISED EDGE
MARKER DETAIL
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 4–13. Taxiway/Taxi Route Relationship –
Unpaved Taxiway with Raised Edge Markers: Hospital
128
TAXIWAY FLUSH IN-GROUND EDGE MARKERS
5 FT X 1 FT [1.5 M X 30 CM]
SPACING: 15 FT [4.6 M] ON STRAIGHT SEGMENTS
10 FT [3.0 M] ON CURVED SEGMENTS
UNPAVED TAXIWAY WIDTH
2X UNDERCARRIAGE WIDTH
TAXIWAY/TAXI OF THE DESIGN HELICOPTER
ROUTE WIDTH
SEE TABLE 4-2
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–14. Taxiway/Route Relationship –
Unpaved Taxiway with Flush Edge Markers: Hospital
129
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Table 4-2. Taxiway / Taxi Route Dimensions – Hospital Heliports
Taxiway
(TW)
Type
Minimum
Width of
Paved Area
Centerline
Marking
Type
TW Edge
Marking
Type
Lateral Separation Between TW
Edge Markings
Total Taxi
Route Width
Ground
Taxiway
2 x UC Painted
Painted 2 x UC
1½ RD
Elevated 1 RD but not greater than 35 ft
(10.7 m)
Unpaved but
stabilized for
ground taxi
None
Flush 2 x UC
Elevated 1 RD but not greater than 35 ft
(10.7 m)
Hover
Taxiway
2 x UC Painted Painted 2 x UC
2 RD
Unpaved None Elevated
or Flush
1 RD but not greater than 35 ft
(10.7 m)
RD: rotor diameter of the design helicopter
TW: taxiway
UC: undercarriage length or width (whichever is greater) of the design helicopter
413. Helicopter parking. If more than one helicopter at a time is expected at a heliport, design the
facility with an area designated for parking helicopters. The size of this area depends on the number and
size of specific helicopters to be accommodated. It is not necessary that every parking position
accommodate the design helicopter. Design individual parking positions to accommodate the helicopter
size and weight expected to use the parking position at the facility. However, use the design helicopter to
determine the separation between parking positions and taxi routes. Use the larger helicopter to determine
the separation between parking positions intended for helicopters of different sizes. Design the parking
positions to support the static loads of the helicopter intended to use the parking area. Design parking
areas as one large, paved apron or as individual, paved parking positions. Ground taxi turns of wheeled
helicopters are significantly larger than a hover turn. Consider the turn radius of helicopters when
designing taxi intersections and parking positions for wheeled helicopters. Design heliport parking areas
so helicopters will be parked in an orientation that keeps the “avoid areas” around the tail rotors (see
Figure 4–18, Figure 4–19, and Figure 4–20) clear of passenger walkways.
a. Location. Do not locate aircraft parking areas under an approach/departure surface. However, as
an option, allow aircraft parking areas under the transitional surfaces.
(1) For “turn around” parking positions, locate the parking position to provide a minimum
distance between the tail rotor arc and any object, building, safety area, or other parking position. The
minimum distance is 10 feet (3 m) for ground taxi operations and the greater of 10 feet (3 m) or 1
/3 RD for
hover taxi operations. See Figure 4–15 and Figure 4–18.
(2) For “taxi-through” and “back-out” parking positions, locate the parking position to provide a
minimum distance between the main rotor circle and any object, building, safety area, or other parking
position. The minimum distance is 10 feet (3 m) for ground taxi operations and the greater of 10 feet (3
m) or 1
/3 RD for hover taxi operations. See Figure 4–15, Figure 4–17, and Figure 4–19.
(3) Locate the parking position to provide a minimum distance between the main rotor circle and
the edge of any taxi route. Design parking positions such that the helicopter taxis through, turns around,
or backs out to depart. The minimum distance is 1
/3 RD for “turn around” and “taxi through” parking
areas, and ½ RD for “back-out” parking areas. See Figure 4–15, Figure 4–16, and Figure 4–17.
b. Parking position sizes are dependent upon the helicopter size. The clearance between parking
positions are dependent upon the type of taxi operations (ground taxi or hover taxi) and the intended paths
for maneuvering in and out of the parking position. The more demanding requirement will dictate what is
required at a particular site. Usually, the parking area requirements for skid-equipped helicopters will be
130
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
the most demanding. However, when the largest helicopter is a very large, wheeled aircraft (for example,
the S-61), and the skid-equipped helicopters are all much smaller, the parking requirements for wheeled
helicopters may be the most demanding. If wheel-equipped helicopters taxi with wheels not touching the
surface, design parking areas based on hover taxi operations rather than ground taxi operations.
(1) If all parking positions are the same size, design them to be large enough to accommodate the
largest helicopter that will park at the heliport.
(2) When there is more than one parking position, as an option design the facility with parking
positions of various sizes and at least one position to accommodate the largest helicopter that will park at
the heliport. Design other parking positions to be smaller, designed for the size of the individual or range
of individual helicopters parking at that position. Figure 4–20 also provides guidance on parking position
identification, size, and weight limitations.
(3) “Taxi-through” parking positions are illustrated in Figure 4–15. When using this design for
parking positions, the heliport owner and operator take steps to ensure all pilots are informed that “turnaround”
or “back-up” departures from the parking position are not permitted.
(4) “Turn-around” parking positions are illustrated in Figure 4–17.
(5) “Back-out” parking positions are illustrated in Figure 4–17. When using this design for
parking positions, design the adjacent taxiway to accommodate hover taxi operations so the width of the
taxiway will be adequate to support “back-out” operations.
c. Parking pads. When partially paving a parking area, design the smallest dimension of the paved
parking pad to be a minimum of two times the maximum dimension (length or width, whichever is
greater) of the undercarriage or the RD, whichever is less, of the largest helicopter that will use this
parking position. Place the parking pad in the center of the parking position circle.
d. Walkways. At parking positions, provide marked walkways where practicable. Design the
pavement to drain away from walkways.
e. Fueling. Design the facility to allow fueling with the use of a fuel truck or a specific fueling area
with stationary fuel tanks.
(1) Various federal, state, and local requirements for petroleum handling facilities apply to
systems for storing and dispensing fuel. Find guidance in AC 150/5230-4, Aircraft Fuel Storage,
Handling, and Dispensing on Airports. Additional information may be found in various National Fire
Protection Association (NFPA) publications. For more reference material, see Appendix D.
(2) Do not locate fueling equipment in the TLOF, FATO, or safety area. Design and mark
separate fueling locations to minimize the potential for helicopters to collide with the dispensing
equipment. Design fueling areas so there is no object tall enough to be hit by the main or tail rotor blades
within a distance of RD from the center point of the position where the helicopter would be fueled
(providing ½ RD clearance from the rotor tips). If this is not practical at an existing facility, install long
fuel hoses.
(3) Lighting. Light the fueling area if night fueling operations are contemplated. Ensure any light
poles do not constitute an obstruction hazard.
f. Tiedowns. Install recessed tiedowns to accommodate extended or overnight parking of based or
transient helicopters. If tiedowns are provided, recess them so as not to be a hazard to helicopters. Ensure
any depression associated with the tiedowns is of a diameter not greater than ½ the width of the smallest
helicopter landing wheel or landing skid anticipated to be operated on the heliport surface. In addition,
provide storage for tiedown chocks, chains, cables and ropes off the heliport surface to avoid fouling
landing gear. Find guidance on recessed tiedowns in AC 20-35, Tiedown Sense.
131
TLOF EDGE MARKING FATO EDGE MARKING
APPROACH/
SURFACE
DEPARTURE
APPROACH/
SURFACE
DEPARTURE
TAXI ROUTE
SEE TABLE 2-2
WIDTH
SAFETY AREA
SHOULDER LINE
MARKING
TAXI ROUTE
WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
SEE
NOTE 3 TAXI ROUTE
WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
1
3 RD
1 RD CIRCLE PARKING POSITION
CENTERLINE (SOLID)
Notes:
1. Several markings (such as Parking Position Identifier and passenger walkways) have been
omitted for clarity.
2. Design the parking positions so that the helicopters exit taxiing forward.
3. Minimum clearance between the arcs generated by the main rotors:
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger helicopter, but not less than 10 ft [3 m].
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 4–15. Parking Area Design –
“Taxi-through” Parking Positions: Hospital
132
TAIL ROTOR
ARC
1
3 RD PARKING POSITION
CENTERLINE (SOLID)
1 RD CIRCLE
TAXI ROUTE
WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
SEE
NOTE 2
TDPC MARKING TAXI ROUTE WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
SAFETY AREA
APPROACH/DEPARTURE APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE SURFACE
FATO EDGE MARKING TLOF EDGE MARKING
Notes:
1. Several markings (such as Parking Position Identifier and passenger walkways) have been omitted for
clarity.
2. Minimum clearance between the tail rotor arcs :
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger helicopter, but not less than 10 ft [3 m].
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–16. Parking Area Design – “Turn-around” Parking Positions: Hospital
133
TAIL ROTOR
ARC
1
2 RD SHOULDER LINE
MARKING
1 RD CIRCLE
TAXI ROUTE
WIDTH
SEE TABLE 2-2
SEE
NOTE 2
PARKING POSITION TAXI ROUTE WIDTH CENTERLINE (SOLID) SEE TABLE 2-2
SAFETY AREA
APPROACH/DEPARTURE APPROACH/DEPARTURE
SURFACE SURFACE
FATO EDGE MARKING TLOF EDGE MARKING
Notes:
1. Several markings (such as Parking Position Identifier and passenger walkways) have been omitted for
clarity.
2. Minimum clearance between the tail rotor arcs :
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger helicopter, but not less than 10 ft [3 m].
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 4–17. Parking Area Design – “Back-out” Parking Positions: Hospital
134
1 R
D
P A R K I N G C I R C
L
E
R
O T
O R L I
T A
A R C
SECURITY FENCE SEE NOTE 2
PASSENGER WALKWAY
1
3 RD OF LARGEST
DESIGN HELICOPTER
SEE NOTE 3
CAUTION SIGN
AT GATE
LARGEST D THE
PARKING POSITION
WILL ACCOMMODATE
PARKING POSITION
IDENTIFIER
(LETTER OR NUMBER)
TDPC MARKING
Notes:
1. Base the design of these parking positions on the 3. Minimum distance between tail rotor arcs is 1
3 RD.
understanding that the helicopter may pivot about the If parking areas are different sizes, 1
3 RD of the larger
mast prior to exiting the parking position. design helicopter.
2. Minimum clearance between the tail rotor arc and fixed objects:
 Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger helicopter,
but not less than 10 ft [3 m]
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–18. “Turn-around” Helicopter Parking Position Marking: Hospital
135
1
R D
P A R K I N G
C I R
C
L
E
SECURITY FENCE
SEE NOTE 1
PASSENGER WALKWAY
SEE NOTE 1
(BACK-OUT ONLY)
SEE NOTE 2
CAUTION SIGN
AT GATE
LARGEST D THE
PARKING POSITION
WILL ACCOMMODATE SHOULDER
MARKING
PARKING POSITION
IDENTIFIER
(LETTER OR NUMBER)
Notes:
1. Minimum clearance between 1 RD 2. Minimum distance between 1 RD parking circles is 1
3 RD.
parking circle and fixed objects: If parking areas are different sizes, 1
3 RD of the larger
design helicopter.  Hover taxi operations: 1
3 RD of the larger
helicopter, but not less than 10 ft [3 m]
 Ground taxi operations: 10 ft [3 m]
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 4–19. “Taxi-through” and “Back-out” Helicopter Parking Position Marking: Hospital
136
TDPC MARKING
(USE WITH TURN-AROUND
PARKING ONLY)
INNER DIAMETER =
1
2 D OF DESIGN HELICOPTER
18 IN [46 CM] WIDE
YELLOW STRIPE
CENTERLINE
12 IN [30 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
10 FT [3 M]
OUTER DIAMETER CIRCLE
6 IN [15 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
6 IN [15 CM]
WIDE STRIPE
YELLOW LINE
PASSENGER WALKWAY
IN BLACK AND WHITE PAINT
SHOULDER LINE
(USE WITH TAXI-THROUGH
AND BACK-OUT PARKING ONLY)
6 IN [15 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
1 RD CIRCLE
6 IN [15 CM] WIDE
YELLOW LINE
PARKING POSITION WEIGHT
LIMITATION (IF APPLICABLE)
IN 3 FT [0.9 M] HIGH CHARACTERS
PARKING POSITION IDENTIFIER
(LETTER OR NUMBER)
IN 3 FT [0.9 M] HIGH CHARACTERS
LARGEST D THE PARKING
POSITION WILL ACCOMMODATE
IN 3 FT [0.9 M] HIGH CHARACTERS
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–20. Parking Position Identification, Size, and Weight Limitations: General Aviation
137
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
414. Heliport markers and markings. Markers and/or surface markings identify the facility as a
heliport. Use paint or preformed material for surface markings (see AC 150/5370-10, Item P-620, for
specifications for paint and preformed material). Reflective paint and reflective markers may also be used,
though overuse of reflective material can be blinding to a pilot using landing lights. As an option, outline
lines/markings with a 6-inch wide (15 cm) line of a contrasting color to enhance conspicuity. Place
markings that define the edges of a TLOF, FATO, taxiway or apron within the limits of those areas. Use
the following markers and markings:
a. Hospital heliport identification marking. The identification marking identifies the location
as a hospital heliport, marks the TLOF and provides visual cues to the pilot.
(1) Standard hospital heliport identification symbol. Mark the TLOF with a red “H” in a
white cross. The minimum height of the “H” is 10 feet (3 m). Locate the “H” in the center of the TLOF
and orient it on the axis of the preferred approach/departure path. Place a 12-inch wide red bar under the
“H” when it is necessary to distinguish the preferred approach/departure direction. The proportions and
layout of the standard hospital heliport identification symbol are illustrated in Figure 4–21. Increase the
dimensions of the “H” and cross proportionately for larger TLOFs.
(2) Alternative marking. As an alternative to the standard marking, use a red “H” with a
white 6-inch (15 cm) wide border within a red cross with a 12 inch (30 cm) wide white border and a
surrounding red TLOF. Where it is impractical to paint the whole TLOF red, paint the TLOF so the
minimum dimension (length, width, or diameter) of the outer red area is equal to the RD of the design
helicopter but not less than 40 feet (12.2 m). Figure 4–22 illustrates this alternative marking. Increase the
dimensions of the “H” and cross proportionately for larger TLOFs.
(3) Winter operations. In winter weather at a heliport with a dark TLOF surface, the
marking in Figure 4–22 will absorb more heat from the sun and more readily melt residual ice and snow.
In contrast, the white area in Figure 4–21 is more likely to be icy during winter weather. Consequently, in
areas that experience ice and snow, use the markings in Figure 4–22 for unheated TLOFs.
b. TLOF markings.
(1) TLOF perimeter marking. Mark the TLOF perimeter with markers and/or lines. See
paragraph 408 and Table 4-1 for guidance on increasing the size of the safety area if the TLOF perimeter
is not marked.
(a) Paved TLOFs. Define the perimeter of a paved or hard surfaced TLOF with a
continuous, 12-inch-wide (30 cm), white line. See Figure 4–23.
(b) Unpaved TLOFs. Define the perimeter of an unpaved TLOF with a series of 12­
inch-wide (30 cm), flush, in-ground markers, each approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) in length with end-to-end
spacing of not more than 6 inches (15 cm). See Figure 4–24.
(2) Touchdown/positioning circle (TDPC) marking. Use an optional TDPC marking to
provide guidance to allow a pilot to touch down in a specific position on paved surfaces. When the pilot’s
seat is over the marking, the undercarriage will be inside the LBA, and all parts of the helicopter will be
clear of any obstacle by a safe margin. A TDPC marking is a yellow circle with an inner diameter of ½ D
and a line width of 18 inches (46 cm). Locate a TDPC marking in the center of a TLOF. See Figure 4–21,
Figure 4–22, and Figure 4–23.
138
30 FT [10 M]
10 FT [3 M]
30 FT [10 M] 10 FT [3 M]
TOUCHDOWN/POSITION CIRCLE
INNER DIAMETER = 1
2 D OF
DESIGN HELICOPTER
18 IN [46 CM] WIDE
YELLOW STRIPE
Notes:
1. Standard TLOF perimeter stripe of 12 in [30 cm]. See figure 4-25 for “H”, touchdown
position, overall length and weight limitation box dimensions.
2. The standard hospital identification is a red H within a white cross.
3. An option may be a red within a white cross surrounded by a 12 in [30 cm] wide red H
border (not illustrated).
4. The area outside of the cross may be colored red.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–21. Standard Hospital Heliport Identification Symbols: Hospital
139
12 IN [30 CM]
STRIPE
30 FT [10 M]
30 FT [10 M] 10 FT [3 M]
10 FT [3 M] 6 IN [15 CM]
STRIPE
Notes:
1. Standard TLOF perimeter stripe of 12 in [30 cm]. See figure 4-25 for “H”, touchdown
position, overall length and weight limitation box dimensions.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 4–22. Alternative Hospital Heliport Identification Symbols: Hospital
140
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
DETAIL A FATO MARKING DETAIL
5 FT [1.5 M]
APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
12 IN [30 CM]
PAINTED TLOF EDGE MARKING
IN GROUND FATO EDGE MARKING
SAFETY AREA
SEE NOTE 3 AND DETAIL A
SEE NOTE 2
5 FT [1.5 M] MIN
6 FT [2 M] MAX
Notes:
1. Mark the perimeter of the TLOF and the FATO.
2.
3.
4. See Figure 4-25 for ” H”, touchdown/position, Overall Length and Weight Limitation box
dimensions.
Define the perimeter of a paved or hard surfaced TLOF with a continuous
12 in [30 cm] white line.
Define the perimeter of the FATO with a 12 in [30 cm] wide dashed line per Detail A.
TDPC
MARKING
Figure 4–23. Paved TLOF/Paved FATO – Paved TLOF/Unpaved FATO – Marking: Hospital
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AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
DETAIL A TLOF FLUSH IN-GROUND MARKING DETAIL
5 FT [1.5 M] 12 IN [30 CM]
Define the perimeter of an unpaved TLOF with flush in-ground markers per Detail A.
Define the perimeter of an an unpaved FATO with flush in-ground markers per Detail B.
2.
3.
DETAIL B FATO FLUSH IN-GROUND MARKING DETAIL
UNPAVED TLOF EDGE MARKING
IN GROUND FATO EDGE MARKING
APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
SAFETY AREA
SEE NOTE 3 AND DETAIL B
12 IN [30 CM]
APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
SEE NOTE 2 AND DETAIL A
5 FT [1.5 M]
UNPAVED FATO
0 FT [0 M] MIN
6 IN [30 CM] MAX
5 FT [1.5 M] MIN
6 FT [2 M] MAX
Notes:
1. Mark the perimeter of the TLOF and FATO.
4. See Figure 4-25 for ” H”, touchdown/position, overall length and weight limitation box
dimensions.
TDPC
MARKING
Figure 4–24. Unpaved TLOF/Unpaved FATO – Marking: Hospital
142
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
(3) TLOF size and weight limitations. Mark the TLOF to indicate the length and weight of
the largest helicopter it will accommodate, as shown in Figure 4–25. Place these markings in a box in the
lower right-hand corner of the TLOF, or on the right-hand side of the “H” of a circular TLOF, when
viewed from the preferred approach direction. The box is 5 feet (1.5 m) square. The numbers are 18” (46
cm) high. If necessary, interrupt the TDPC marking with this marking. (See Figure C–2.) The numbers
are black with a white background. This marking is optional at a TLOF with a turf surface.
(a) TLOF size limitation. This number is the length (D) of the largest helicopter the
TLOF will accommodate, as shown in Figure 4–25. The marking consists of the letter “D” followed by
the dimension in feet. Do not use metric equivalents used for this purpose. Center this marking in the
lower section of the TLOF size/weight limitation box.
(b) TLOF weight limitations. If a TLOF has limited weight-carrying capability, mark it
with the maximum takeoff weight of the design helicopter, in units of thousands of pounds, as shown in
Figure 4–25. Do not use metric equivalents for this purpose. Center this marking in the upper section of a
TLOF size/weight limitation box. If the TLOF does not have a weight limit, add a diagonal line extending
from the lower left hand corner to the upper right hand corner to the upper section of the TLOF
size/weight limitation box.
c. Extended pavement/structure markings. As an option at hospital heliports, increase the
pavement or structure without a corresponding increase in the length and width or diameter of the FATO
to accommodate pedestrians and/or support operations. Whether or not this increased area is part of the
LBA, mark the pavement or structure outside the TLOF with 12-inch-wide (30 cm) diagonal black and
white stripes. See Figure 4–26 for marking details.
d. FATO markings.
(1) FATO perimeter marking. Define the perimeter of a load-bearing FATO with markers
and/or lines. Do not mark the FATO perimeter if any portion of the FATO is not a load-bearing surface.
In such cases, mark the TLOF perimeter (see paragraph 414.)
(a) Paved FATOs. Define the perimeter of a paved load-bearing FATO with a 12-inchwide
(30 cm) dashed white line. Use marking segments approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) in length, and with
end-to-end spacing of approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) to define the corners of the FATO and the perimeter.
See Figure 4–23.
(b) Unpaved FATOs. Define the perimeter of an unpaved load-bearing FATO with 12­
inch-wide (30 cm), flush, in-ground markers. Use marking segments approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) in
length, and with end-to-end spacing of approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) to define the corners of the FATO
and the perimeter. See Figure 4–23 and Figure 4–24.
e. Flight path alignment guidance marking. An optional flight path alignment guidance
marking consists of one or more arrows to indicate the preferred approach/departure direction(s). Place it
on the TLOF, FATO and/or safety area surface as shown in Figure 4–10. The shaft of the arrow(s) is 18
inches (50 cm) in width and at least 10 feet (3 m) in length. When combined with a flight path alignment
guidance lighting system described in paragraph 415, it takes the form shown in Figure 4–10, which
includes scheme for marking the arrowheads. Use a color that provides good contrast against the
background color of the surface on which they are marked. An arrow pointing toward the center of the
TLOF depicts an approach direction. An arrow pointing away from the center of the TLOF depicts a
departure direction. In the case of a flight path limited to a single approach direction or a single takeoff
direction, the arrow marking is unidirectional. In the case of a heliport with only a bidirectional
approach/takeoff flight path available, the arrow marking is bidirectional.
143
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
ALTERNATE MARKING WITH
DETAIL B
SEE NOTE 2
SEE NOTE 3
NO WEIGHT RESTRICTIONS
10′-0″
[3 M]
2′-0″
[61 CM]
TLOF SIZE/WEIGHT
LIMITATION ‘BOX’
DETAIL A
HELIPORT INDENTIFICATION
SYMBOL
SEE DETAIL B
SEE DETAIL A
TOUCHDOWN/POSITION CIRCLE
INNER DIAMETER = 1
2 D OF
DESIGN HELICOPTER
18 IN [46 CM] WIDE
YELLOW STRIPE
NO WEIGHT LIMIT
Notes:
See Appendix D for the form and proportion of the numbers used in the TLOF Size and
“10” indicates the maximum takeoff weight (10,000 lbs [4,535 kg]) of the TLOF design
“D46″ indicates the overall length of the largest helicopter (46 ft [14.0 M]) for which the
1.
2.
3.
Limitation Box.
TLOF is designed.
helicopter, in units of thousands of pounds [kilograms].
6′-8″ [1.8 M]
1′-0” [30 CM] 5 IN
[12.7 CM]
5 FT [1.5 M]
SQUARE
Figure 4–25. TLOF Size and Weight Limitations: Hospital
144
EXTENDED PAVEMENT/STRUCTURE TLOF EDGE MARKING
FLUSH TLOF EDGE LIGHTS
Notes:
1. Extended pavement/structure markings begin flush with TLOF edge
markings and end at the edge of the extended pavement/structure.
2. Extended pavement/structure markings are 12 in [30 cm]
wide black and white stripes on a 45° angle.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–26. Extended Pavement or Structure Marking: Hospital
145
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
f. Taxi route and taxiway markings.
(1) Paved taxiway markings. Mark the centerline of a paved taxiway with a continuous 6­
inch (15 cm) yellow line. If necessary to increase conspicuity, mark both edges of the paved portion of the
taxiway with two continuous 6- inch (15 cm) wide yellow lines spaced 6 inches (15 cm) apart. Figure 4–
12 illustrates taxiway centerline and edge markings.
(2) Unpaved taxiway markings. Use either raised or in-ground flush edge markers to
provide strong visual cues to pilots. Space them longitudinally at approximately 15-foot (5 m) intervals
on straight segments and at approximately 10-foot (3 m) intervals on curved segments. Figure 4–13 and
Figure 4–14 illustrate taxiway edge markings.
(a) Raised-edge markers are blue, 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter, and 10 inches (25 cm)
high, as illustrated in Figure 4–13.
(b) In-ground, flush edge markers are yellow, 12 inches (30 cm) wide, and
approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) long.
(3) Raised edge markers in grassy areas. Raised edge markers are sometimes obscured by
tall grass. Address this issue with 12-inch (30 cm) diameter concrete pads or solid material disks around
the poles supporting the raised markers.
(4) Taxiway to parking position transition requirements. For paved taxiways and parking
areas, taxiway centerline markings continue into parking positions and become the parking position
centerlines.
g. Parking position markings. If a hospital heliport has a parking position, the following
standards apply.
(1) Paved parking position identifications. Mark parking position identifications (numbers
or letters) if there is more than one parking position. These markings are yellow characters 36 inches (91
cm) high. See Figure 4–20 and Figure C–1.
(2) Rotor diameter circle. Define the circle of the RD of the largest helicopter that will park
at that position with a 6-inch (15 cm) wide, solid yellow line with an outside diameter of RD. In paved
areas, this is a painted line (See Figure 4–20). In unpaved areas, use a series of flush markers, 6 inches (15
cm) in width, a maximum of 5 feet (1.5 m) in length, and with end-to-end spacing of approximately 5 feet
(1.5 m).
h. Touchdown/positioning circle (TDPC) marking. An optional TDPC marking provides
guidance to allow a pilot to touch down in a specific position on paved surfaces. When the pilot’s seat is
over the marking, the undercarriage will be inside the LBA, and all parts of the helicopter will be clear of
any obstacle by a safe margin. A TDPC marking is a yellow circle with an inner diameter of ½ D and a
line width of 18 in (46 cm). Locate a TDPC marking in the center of a parking area. Use a TDPC marking
for “turn-around” parking areas. See Figure 4–20 and Figure 4–18.
i. Maximum length marking. On paved surfaces, indicate the D of the largest helicopter that
the position is designed to accommodate (for example, 40) with this marking. This marking consists of
yellow characters at least 36 inches (91 cm) high. See Figure 4–20 and Figure C–1.
j. Parking position weight limit. If a paved parking position has a weight limitation, mark it in
units of 1,000 lbs as illustrated in Figure 4–20. (A 4 indicates a weight-carrying capability of up to 4,000
lbs. Do not use metric equivalents for this purpose.) This marking consists of yellow characters 36 inches
(91 cm) high. Place a bar under the number if necessary to minimize the possibility of being misread. See
Figure 4–18 and Figure C–1.
k. Shoulder line markings. Use optional shoulder line markings for paved parking areas (See
Figure 4–15) to ensure safe rotor clearance. Locate a 6-inch (15 cm) wide solid yellow shoulder line,
146
WIND CONE REMOVED
Notes:
1. Paint a yellow “X” marking over the “H” when removal or obliteration of the
heliport markings is impractical.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
perpendicular to the centerline and extending to the RD marking, so it is under the pilot’s shoulder such
that the main rotor of the largest helicopter for which the position is designed will be entirely within the
rotor diameter parking circle (See Figure 4–20.) Use 0.25 D from the center of parking area to define the
location of shoulder line. Use a shoulder line marking for “taxi through” and “back-out” parking areas.
l. Walkways. Figure 4–20 illustrates one marking scheme.
m. Closed heliport. Obliterate all markings of a permanently closed heliport, FATO, or TLOF.
If it is impractical to obliterate markings, place a yellow “X” over the “H”, as illustrated in Figure 4–27.
Use a yellow “X” large enough to ensure early pilot recognition that the heliport is closed. Remove the
wind cone(s) and other visual indications of an active heliport.
n. Marking sizes. See Appendix C for guidance on the proportions of painted numbers.
Figure 4–27. Marking a Closed Heliport: Hospital
415. Heliport lighting. If the heliport operator intends for the facility to support night operations, light
the heliport with FATO and/or TLOF perimeter lights as described below. Design flush light fixtures and
installation methods to support point loads of the design helicopter transmitted through a skid or wheel.
a. TLOF perimeter lights.
(1) Ground level TLOF. Use green lights meeting the requirements of FAA Airports
Engineering Brief 87, Heliport Perimeter Light for Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), to define
the TLOF perimeter. If only the TLOF is load bearing, use flush lights or, as a less desirable option,
raised green omnidirectional lights. Use a minimum of three light fixtures per side of a square or
rectangular TLOF. Locate a light at each corner, with additional lights uniformly spaced between the
147
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
corner lights. Using an odd number of lights on each side will place lights along the centerline of the
approach. To define a circular TLOF, use an even number of lights, with a minimum of eight, uniformly
spaced. Space the lights at a maximum of 25 feet (7.6 m). Locate flush lights within 1 foot (30 cm) (inside
or outside) of the TLOF perimeter. Locate raised lights outside and within 10 feet (3 m) of the edge of the
TLOF. Make sure raised lights do not penetrate a horizontal plane at the TLOF elevation by more than 2
inches (5 cm). Figure 4–28 and Figure 4–30 illustrate these lights.
(2) Elevated TLOF. As an option, use raised, omnidirectional lights meeting the
requirements of EB 87, located on the outside edge of the TLOF or the outer of the safety net, as shown in
Figure 4–29. Lighting on the outer edge of the safety net provides better visual cues to pilots at a distance
from the heliport since it outlines a larger area. Make sure raised lights do not penetrate a horizontal plane
at the TLOF elevation by more than 2 inches (5 cm).
b. Load-bearing FATO perimeter lights. Use green lights meeting the requirements of EB 87
to define the perimeter of a load bearing FATO. Do not light the FATO perimeter if any portion of the
FATO is not a load-bearing surface. Use a minimum of three flush or raised light fixtures per side of a
square or rectangular FATO. Locate a light is located at each corner, with additional lights uniformly
spaced between the corner lights. Using an odd number of lights on each side will place lights along the
centerline of the approach. To define a circular FATO, use an even number of lights, with a minimum of
eight, uniformly spaced. Space lights at a maximum of 25 feet (7.6 m). Locate flush lights within 1 foot
(30 cm) (inside or outside) of the FATO perimeter (see Figure 4–28 and Figure 4–30). As an option, use a
rectangular light pattern even if the TLOF is circular. At a distance during nighttime operations, a square
or rectangular pattern of FATO perimeter lights provides the pilot with better visual alignment cues than a
circular pattern, but a circular pattern may be more effective in an urban environment. In the case of an
elevated FATO with a safety net, mount the perimeter lights in a similar manner as discussed in paragraph
415. Make sure raised FATO perimeter lights are no more than 8 inches (20 cm) high, and locate them 10
feet (3 m) from the FATO perimeter.
c. Floodlights. The FAA has not evaluated floodlights for effectiveness in visual acquisition of
a heliport. However, if ambient light does not adequately illuminate markings for night operations, use
floodlights to illuminate the TLOF, the FATO, and/or the parking area. If possible, mount these
floodlights on adjacent buildings to eliminate the need for tall poles. Take care, however, to place
floodlights clear of the TLOF, the FATO, the safety area, and the approach/departure surfaces, and
transitional surfaces. Ensure floodlights and their associated hardware do not constitute an obstruction
hazard. Aim floodlights down to provide adequate illumination on the surface. Make sure floodlights that
might interfere with pilot vision during takeoff and landings are capable of being turned off by pilot
control or at pilot request.
148
5 APPROACH LIGHTS (OPTIONAL)
SEE FIGURE 4-31 FOR DETAILS
LIGHTED WIND CONE
PREFERRED APPROACH C L
FLUSH FATO EDGE LIGHTS
FLUSH TLOF EDGE LIGHTS
1 FT [30 CM]
FLUSH IN-PAVEMENT LIGHT DETAIL
Notes:
1. Install flush FATO and TLOF perimeter lights inside or outside within 1 ft [30 cm]
the FATO and TLOF respective perimeters.
2. Overall length and weight limitation box marking omitted for clarity.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–28. Flush TLOF/FATO Perimeter Lighting: Hospital
149
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
SAFETY NET
B
NOT LESS THAN 5 FT [1.5 M]
NOT MORE THAN
2 IN [5 CM]
12 IN [30 CM]
C A
(SURROUNDING
THE STRUCTURE)
Three possible locations for TLOF/LBA edge lighting:
Flush edge fixtures
Omnidirectional light, mounted off structure edge
Omnidirectional light, mounted off outer edge of safety net
A
B
C
FALL PROTECTION:
RECOMMENDED IF
ABOVE 30 IN [0.8 M]
REQUIRED IF
ABOVE 4 FT [1.2 M]
Figure 4–29. Elevated TLOF, Safety Net and Lighting Heliport Partial Elevation: Hospital
150
5 APPROACH LIGHTS (OPTIONAL)
SEE FIGURE 4-31 FOR DETAILS
LIGHTED WIND CONE
PREFERRED APPROACH C L
SEE NOTE 2
RAISED FATO OMNIDIRECTIONAL
LIGHTS
FLUSH TLOF EDGE LIGHTS
Notes:
1. Install flush TLOF perimeter lights inside or outside within 1 ft [30 cm] of the FATO
and TLOF respective perimeters.
2. Install raised FATO lights 10 ft [3 m] outside the FATO perimeter.
3. Overall length and weight limitation box marking omitted for clarity.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–30. Flush TLOF and Raised FATO Perimeter Lighting: Hospital
151
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
d. Landing direction lights. As an option when it is necessary to provide directional guidance,
install landing direction lights. Landing direction lights are a configuration of five green omnidirectional
lights meeting the standards of EB 87, on the centerline of the preferred approach/departure path. Space
these lights at 15-foot (5 m) intervals beginning at a point not less than 20 feet (6 m) and not more than 60
feet (18 m) from the TLOF perimeter and extending outward in the direction of the preferred
approach/departure path, as illustrated in Figure 4–31.
e. Flight path alignment lights. Flight path alignment lights meeting the requirements of EB
87 are optional. Place them in a straight line along the direction of approach and/or departure flight paths.
If necessary, extend them across the TLOF, FATO, safety area or any suitable surface in the immediate
vicinity of the FATO or safety area. Install three or more green lights spaced at 5 feet (1.5 m) to 10 feet
(3.0 m). See Figure 4–10.
f. Taxiway and taxi route lighting.
(1) Taxiway centerline lights. Define taxiway centerlines with flush bidirectional green
lights meeting the standards of AC 150/5345-46, Specification for Runway and Taxiway Light Fixtures,
for type L-852A (straight segments) or L-852B (curved segments). Space these lights at maximum 50­
foot (15 m) longitudinal intervals on straight segments and at maximum 25 foot (7.6 m) intervals on
curved segments, with a minimum of four lights needed to define the curve. Uniformly offset taxiway
centerline lights no more than two feet (0.6 m) if necessary to ease painting the taxiway centerline. As an
option, use green retroreflective markers meeting requirements for Type I markers in AC 150/5345-39,
Specification for L-853, Runway and Taxiway Retroreflective Markers in lieu of the L-852A or L-852B
lighting fixtures.
(2) Taxiway edge lights. Use omnidirectional blue lights to light the edges of a taxiway. As
an option, use blue retroreflective markers to identify the edges of the taxiway in lieu of lights. Make sure
retroreflective markers are no more than 8 inches (20 cm) tall.
(a) Straight segments. Space lights at 50 feet (15.2 m) longitudinal intervals on straight
segments.
(b) Curved segments. Curved taxiway edges require shorter spacing of edge lights.
Determine the spacing based on the radius of the curve. The applicable spacing for curves is shown in AC
150/5340-30, Design and Installation Detail for Airport Visual Aids. Space the taxiway edge lights
uniformly. Use at least three edge lights for curved edges of more than 30 degrees from point of tangency
(PT) of the taxiway section to PT of the intersecting surface. For radii not listed in AC 150/5340-30,
determine spacing by linear interpolation.
(c) Paved taxiways. Use flush lights meeting the standards of AC 150/5345-46 for type
L-852T.
(d) Unpaved taxiways. Use raised lights meeting the standards of AC 150/5345-46 for
type L-861T. Use a maximum lateral spacing for the lights or reflectors equal to the RD of the design
helicopter, but not more than 35 feet (10.7 m).
152
FATO
TLOF
NOT LESS THAN
20 FT [6 M]
NOR MORE THAN
60 FT [18 M]
4 EQUAL SPACES
@ 15 FT [4.6 M]
= 60 FT [18.4 M]
Legend:
Omnidirectional green lights
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 4–31. Landing Direction Lights: Hospital
153
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
g. Heliport identification beacon. A heliport identification beacon is optional equipment. It is
the most effective means to aid the pilot in visually locating the heliport. Locate the beacon, flashing
white/green/yellow at the rate of 30 to 45 flashes per minute, on or close to the heliport. Find guidance on
heliport beacons in AC 150/5345-12, Specification for Airport and Heliport Beacon. As an option, allow
the beacon to be pilot controllable, so it is “on” only when needed.
416. Marking and lighting of difficult-to-see objects. It is often difficult for pilot to see unmarked
wires, antennas, poles, cell towers, and similar objects, even in the best daylight weather, in time to take
evasive action. While pilots can avoid such objects during en route operations by flying well above them,
approaches and departures require operations near the ground where obstacles may be a factor. This
paragraph discusses the marking and lighting of objects near, but outside and below the
approach/departure surface. Find guidance on marking and lighting objects in AC 70/7460-1, Obstruction
Marking and Lighting.
a. Airspace. If difficult-to-see objects penetrate the object identification surfaces illustrated in
Figure 4–32 and Figure 4–33, mark these objects to make them more conspicuous. If a heliport supports
operations between dusk and dawn, light these difficult-to-see objects. Guidance on marking and lighting
objects is contained in AC 70/7460-1. The object identification surfaces in Figure 4–32 and Figure 4–33
can also be described as follows:
(1) In all directions from the safety area, except under the approach/departure paths, the
object identification surface starts at the safety area perimeter and extends out horizontally for a distance
of 100 feet (30.5 m).
(2) Under the approach/departure surface, the object identification surface starts from the
outside edge of the FATO and extends horizontally out along the approach path for a distance of 800 feet
(244 m). From this point, the object identification surface extends out along the approach path for an
additional distance of 3,200 feet (975 m) while rising on an 8:1 slope (8 units horizontal in 1 unit
vertical). From the point 800 feet (244 m) from the FATO perimeter, the object identification surface is
100 feet (30.5 m) beneath the approach/departure surface.
(3) The width of the safety surface increases as a function of distance from the safety area.
From the safety area perimeter, the object identification surface extends laterally to a point 100 feet (30.5
m) outside the safety area perimeter. At the upper end of the surface, the object identification surface
extends laterally 200 feet (61 m) on either side of the approach/departure path.
b. Shielding of objects. Title 14 CFR part 77.9, Construction or alteration requiring notice,
provides that if there are a number of objects close together, it may not be necessary to mark all of them if
they are shielded. To meet the shielding guidelines part 77 requires that an object “be shielded by existing
structures of a permanent and substantial nature or by natural terrain or topographic features of equal or
greater height, and will be located in the congested area of a city, town, or settlement where the shielded
structure will not adversely affect safety in air navigation.”
c. Equipment/object marking. Make heliport maintenance and servicing equipment, as well as
other objects used in the airside operational areas, conspicuous with paint, reflective paint, reflective tape,
or other reflective markings. Find additional guidance in AC 150/5210-5, Painting, Marking, and Lighting
of Vehicles Used on an Airport.
154
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
(8:1 SLOPE)
APPROACH/DEPARTURE SURFACE
(8:1 SLOPE)
OBJECT IDENTIFICATION SURFACE
FATO
400 FT
[122M]
100 FT
[30 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
3,200 FT [975 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
100 FT [30 M]
FROM EDGE
OF SAFETY AREA
100 FT [30 M] FROM EDGE OF SAFETY AREA
100 FT [30 M] R 200 FT
[61 M]
Figure 4–32. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended: Hospital
155
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012 500 FT [152 M] 200 FT [61 M] 400 FT [122M] 100 FT [30 M] 500 FT [152 M] 100 FT [30 M] R 100 FT [30 M] FROM EDGE OF SAFETY AREA FATO 100 FT [30 M] FROM FATO EDGE OF SAFETY AREA (8 1: SLOPE) APPROACH/DEPARTURE
(8 1: SLOPE)
OBJECT IDENTIFICATION
800 FT [244 M]
3,200 FT 9[ 75 M]
S
U
RFA
C
E
S
U
RFA
C
E
Figure 4–33. Airspace Where Marking and Lighting are Recommended:
Curved Approach: Hospital
156
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
417. Safety considerations. Consider the safety enhancements discussed below in the design of a
heliport. Address other areas such as the effects of rotor downwash based on site conditions and the
design helicopter.
a. Security. Provide a means to keep the operational areas of a hospital heliport clear of people,
animals, and vehicles. Use a method to control access depending upon the helicopter location and types of
potential intruders.
(1) Safety barrier. At ground-level hospital heliports, erect a safety barrier around the
helicopter operational areas in the form of a fence or a wall. Construct the barrier no closer to the
operation areas than the outer perimeter of the safety area. Make sure the barrier does not penetrate any
approach/departure (primary or transitional) surface. If necessary in the vicinity of the approach/departure
paths, install the barrier well outside the outer perimeter of the safety area.
(2) Make sure any barrier is high enough to present a positive deterrent to persons
inadvertently entering an operational area and yet low enough to be non-hazardous to helicopter
operations.
(3) Access. Control access to airside areas in a manner commensurate with the barrier (for
example, build fences with locked gates). Display a cautionary sign similar to that illustrated in Figure 4–
34 on gates and doors. As an option at hospital heliport, secure operational areas via the use of security
guards and a mixture of fixed and movable barriers.
b. Rescue and fire-fighting services. Heliports are subject to state and local rescue and firefighting
regulations. Provide a fire hose cabinet or extinguisher at each access gate/door and each fueling
location. Locate fire hose cabinets, fire extinguishers, and other fire-fighting equipment near, but below
the level of, the TLOF. Find additional information in various NFPA publications. For more reference
material, see Appendix D.
c. Communications. Use a Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) radio to provide
arriving helicopters with heliport and traffic advisory information but do not use this radio to control air
traffic. Contact the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for information on CTAF licensing.
d. Weather information. An automated weather observing system (AWOS) measures and
automatically broadcasts current weather conditions at the heliport site. When installing an AWOS, locate
it at least 100 feet (30 m) and not more than 700 feet (213 m) from the TLOF and such that its
instruments will not be affected by rotor wash from helicopter operations. Find guidance on AWOS
systems in AC 150/5220-16, Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS) for Non-Federal
Applications, and FAA Order 6560.20, Siting Criteria for Automated Weather Observing Systems
(AWOS). Other weather observing systems will have different siting criteria.
e. Winter operations. Swirling snow raised by a helicopter’s rotor wash can cause the pilot to
lose sight of the intended landing point and/or hide objects that need to be avoided. Design the heliport to
accommodate the methods and equipment used for snow removal. Design the heliport to allow the snow
to be removed sufficiently so it will not present an obstruction hazard to the tail rotor, main rotor, or
undercarriage. Find guidance on winter operations in AC 150/5200-30, Airport Winter Safety and
Operations.
157
CAUTION
HELICOPTER LANDING
AREA
SAFETY
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
STAY CLEAR
APPROACH AND LEAVE HELICOPTER AS DIRECTED BY CREW OF THE
IN A CROUCHED MANNER WHEN ROTORS ARE TURNING TAIL ROTOR
INSTRUCTIONS
AUTHORIZED
PERSONNEL
ONLY
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 4–34. Caution Sign: Hospital
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
418. Visual glideslope indicators (VGSI). A VGSI provides pilots with visual vertical course and
descent cues. Install the VGSI such that the lowest on-course visual signal provides a minimum of 1
degree of clearance over any object that lies within 10 degrees of the approach course centerline.
a. Siting. The optimum location of a VGSI is on the extended centerline of the approach path at
a distance that brings the helicopter to a hover with the undercarriage between 3 and 8 feet (0.9 to 2.5 m)
above the TLOF. Figure 4–35 illustrates VGSI clearance criteria. To properly locate the VGSI, estimate
the vertical distance from the undercarriage to the pilot’s eye.
b. Control of the VGSI. As an option, allow the VGSI to be pilot controllable such that it is
“on” only when required.
c. VGSI needed. A VGSI is an optional feature. However, provide a VGSI if one or more of
the following conditions exist, especially at night:
(1) Obstacle clearance, noise abatement, or traffic control procedures require a particular
slope to be flown.
(2) The environment of the heliport provides few visual surface cues.
d. Additional guidance. AC 150/5345-52, Generic Visual Glideslope Indicators (GVGI), and
AC 150/5345-28, Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) Systems, provide additional guidance.
419. Zoning and compatible land use. Where state and local statutes permit, the FAA encourages a
hospital heliport operator to promote the adoption of the following zoning measures to ensure the heliport
will continue to be available and to protect the investment in the facility.
a. Zoning to limit building/object heights. Find general guidance on drafting an ordinance that
would limit building and object heights in AC 150/5190-4, A Model Zoning Ordinance to Limit Height of
Objects Around Airports. Substitute the heliport surfaces for the airport surfaces in the model ordinance.
b. Zoning for compatible land use. The FAA encourages public agencies to enact zoning
ordinances to control the use of property within the HPZ and the approach/departure path environment,
restricting activities to those compatible with helicopter operations.
e. Air rights and property easements. Use air rights and property easements as options to
prevent the encroachment of obstacles in the vicinity of a heliport.
159
LOWER LIMIT OF THE ON-COURSE SIGNAL
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE REFERENCE LINE
LOWER LIMIT OF THE ON-COURSE SIGNAL
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE REFERENCE LINE
10°
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
PLANE
COURSE CENTERLINE
VISUAL GLIDESLOPE
INDICATOR (VGSI)
10°
CRITICAL
OBJECT
1° MINIMUM CLEARANCE
VISUAL GLIDESLOPE
INDICATOR (VGSI)
VARIABLE SEE DETAIL BELOW
PILOT’S EYES
VISUAL GLIDESLOPE
INDICATOR (VGSI)
3 FT TO 8 FT
[1 M TO 2.4 M]
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 4–35. Visual Glideslope Indicator Siting and Clearance Criteria: Hospital
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Chapter 5. Helicopter Facilities on Airports
501. General. Helicopters are able to operate on most airports without unduly interfering with airplane
traffic. If necessary, provide separate facilities and approach/departure procedures when the volume of
airplane and/or helicopter traffic affects operations. At airports with interconnecting passenger traffic,
provide gates at the terminal for helicopter boarding. People who use a helicopter to go to an airport
generally require convenient access to the airport terminal and the services provided to airplane
passengers. Identify the location of the exclusive-use helicopter facilities, TLOFs, FATOs, safety areas,
approach/departure paths, and helicopter taxi routes and taxiways on the airport layout plan (ALP). This
chapter addresses design considerations for providing separate helicopter facilities on airports. Figure 5–1
shows an example of a heliport located on an airport. Other potential heliport locations are on the roofs of
passenger terminals or parking garages serving passenger terminals.
502. Applicability. The standards in this chapter apply to projects funded under the Airport
Improvement Program (AIP) or Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) program. For other projects/heliports,
these standards are the FAA’s recommendations for designing all heliports on airports. The design
standards in this chapter assume there will never be more than one helicopter within the final approach
and takeoff area (FATO) and the associated safety area. If there is a need for more than one touchdown
and lift-off area (TLOF) at a heliport, locate each TLOF within its own FATO and within its own safety
area. Unless otherwise noted, the standards in Chapter 2 apply to helicopter facilities serving general
aviation operations and the standards in Chapter 3 apply to helicopter facilities serving transport
operations.
503. Touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF). Locate the TLOF to provide ready access to the airport
terminal or to the helicopter user’s origin or destination.
504. Final approach and takeoff area (FATO). Table 5-1 provides standards for the distance
between the centerline of an approach to a runway and the centerline of an approach to a FATO for
simultaneous, same direction, VFR operations.
Table 5-1. Recommended Distance between FATO Center
to Runway Centerline for VFR Operations
Airplane Size Small Helicopter
7,000 lbs or less
Medium Helicopter
7,001 to 12,500 lbs
Large Helicopter
over 12,500 lbs
Small Airplane
12,500 lbs or less
300 feet
(91 m)
500 feet
(152 m)
700 feet
(213 m)
Large Airplane
12,500 lbs to 300,000 lbs
500 feet
(152 m)
500 feet
(152 m)
700 feet
(213 m)
Heavy Airplane
Over 300,000 lbs
700 feet
(213 m)
700 feet
(213 m)
700 feet
(213 m)
505. Safety area. Apply the safety area dimensions and clearances described in Chapter 2 to facilities
being developed on an airport for general aviation helicopter use. Apply safety area dimensions and
clearances in Chapter 3 to facilities being developed on an airport for transport helicopter use.
506. VFR approach/departure paths. To the extent practical, design helicopter approach/departure
paths to be independent of approaches to and departures from active runways.
161
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
507. Heliport protection zone (HPZ). Establish an HPZ where it is practicable for the airport owner
to acquire and plan the land uses within the HPZ. Where this is not practicable, the HPZ standards have
recommendation status for that portion of the HPZ the airport owner does not control.
508. Taxiways and taxi routes. When developing exclusive helicopter taxiways or taxi routes at an
airport, locate them to minimize interaction with airplane operations.
509. Helicopter parking. Locate helicopter parking positions as close to the intended destination or
origination of the passengers as conditions and safety permit.
510. Security. Unless screening was carried out at the helicopter passengers’ departure location,
Transportation Security Administration regulations may require that a screening area and/or screening be
provided before passengers enter the airport’s secured areas. If necessary, establish multiple helicopter
parking positions and/or locations in the terminal area to service helicopter passenger screening and/or
cargo interconnecting needs. Find information about passenger at the Transportation Security
Administration web site http://www.tsa.gov/public/.
162
N
RUNWAY 6-24 (150 X 7700) PAVED
SEE
TABLE 5-1
DEPARTURE
APPROACH/
SURFACE
GA/CORPORATE
APRON
HELIPORT
OPERATIONS FATO
AREAS
TLOF/
DEPARTURE
APPROACH/
SURFACE
Earhart Regional Airport
Lindbergh, South Dakota
Airport Location:
44°- 58′ N, 103° -46″ W
Airport Elevation:
KEY PLAN 3,022 Feet Above Sea Level
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 5–1. Heliport Located on an Airport: On Airport
163
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Intentionally Left Blank
164
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Chapter 6. Instrument Operations
601. General. Instrument approach/departure/missed approach procedures permit helicopter
operations to continue during periods of low cloud ceilings and reduced visibility. The FAA establishes
Instrument approach procedures in accordance with FAA 8260 series Orders published by FAA Flight
Procedures Standards Branch. When a heliport does not meet the criteria of this AC, or FAA 8260 Series
Orders, the FAA publishes the helicopter instrument approach procedure as a SPECIAL procedure, with
annotations that special aircrew qualifications, pilot training and aircraft equipment are required to fly the
specific procedure(s).
602. Planning. This chapter addresses issues that heliport owners consider before requesting the
development of instrument approach/departure/missed approach procedures. The standards and
recommendations in this AC are not intended to be sufficient to design an instrument procedure. Initiate
early contact with the appropriate FAA Flight Standards Office to establish instrument procedures.
603. Airspace. Those who design instrument approach/departure/missed approach procedures have
some flexibility in the design of such procedures. For this and other reasons, the airspace required to
support helicopter instrument approach/departure operations is complex, and it does not lend itself to
simple descriptions, even using figures. Refer to the latest revision of FAA 8260-series orders for more
detailed information on criteria for developing helicopter instrument approach/departure/missed approach
procedures.
604. Final approach reference area (FARA). For precision instrument procedures only, a
certificated helicopter precision approach procedure terminates with the helicopter coming to a hover or
touching down within a 150-foot-wide (45 m) by at least 150-foot long (45 m) FARA. The FARA is
located at the far end of a 300-foot-wide by 1,225-foot- long (91 m by 373 m) FATO required for a
precision instrument procedure. For the purposes of requirements for LBA and lighting, substitute the
FARA for the FATO. Figure 6–1 illustrates the FARA/FATO relationship.
605. Improved lighting system. Installing the lighting systems described below may result in lower
visibility minimums. See Figure 6–2 and Figure 6–3.
a. FATO perimeter lighting enhancement. Insert an additional raised, green light meeting the
standards of FAA Airports Engineering Brief 87, Heliport Perimeter Light for Visual Meteorological
Conditions (VMC), between each light in the front and rear rows of the raised perimeter lights to enhance
the definition of the FATO.
b. Heliport instrument lighting system. The HILS consists of 24 unidirectional PAR 56, 200­
watt white lights that extend the FATO perimeter lights. The system extends both the right and left edge
lights as “edge bars” and both the front and rear edge lights as “wing bars,” as shown in Figure 6–2.
(1) Edge bars. Place edge bar lights at 50-foot (15.2 m) intervals, measured from the front
and rear row of the FATO perimeter lights.
(2) Wing bars. Space wing bar lights at 15-foot (4.57 m) intervals, measured from the line of
FATO perimeter (side) lights.
(3) Optional TLOF lights. A line of seven white flush lights meeting the standards of EB 87
is optional. Space them at 5-foot (1.5 m) intervals in the TLOF pavement. Align these lights on the
centerline of the approach course to provide close-in directional guidance and improve TLOF surface
definition. These lights are illustrated in Figure 6–2.
165
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
c. Heliport approach lighting System (HALS). The HALS, depicted in Figure 6–3 is a
distinctive approach lighting configuration designed to prevent it from being mistaken for an airport
runway approach lighting system.
606. Obstacle evaluation surfaces. The instrument procedure developer considers the specific
heliport location, its physical characteristics, the terrain, surrounding obstructions, and so on, in designing
the helicopter instrument approach procedure. Upon development of the instrument procedure, protect its
underlying obstacle evaluation surfaces from penetrations. See paragraph 221. Also see paragraphs 201.e,
301.e, and 401.e.
Note: The illustrated FARA-FATO relationship is appropriate for a heliport at an elevation
PRECISION INSTRUMENT FATO
1.225 FT [373 M]
150 FT
[46 M]
300 FT
[91 M]
150 FT
[46 M]
up to 1,000 ft [305 M] above mean sea level.
FARA
Figure 6–1. FARA/FATO Relationship: Precision
166
E
D
G
E
B
A
R
OPTIONAL TLOF
LIGHTS
WING BAR
5 ADDITIONAL
OMNIDIRECTIONAL
LIGHTS
3 EQUAL SPACES
OF 50 FT [15.2 M]
3 EQUAL SPACES
OF 15 FT [4.6 M]
LIGHTED
WIND CONE
Legend:
Wing Bars and Edge Bars
Flush TLOF Centerline Light: Green
(Optional – 5 ft [1.5 m] spacing)
Flush FATO Edge Light: Green
(Note: Raised FATO edge lights
are also an option. Raised FATO
edge lights would be placed outside
the FATO.
Perimeter Enhancement Light: Green
Approach lights: Green
Note: The depicted HILS installation is appropriate to a minimally sized heliport located at an
elevation up to 1,000 ft [305 m] above mean sea level.
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 6–2. Heliport Instrument Lighting System (HILS): Non-precision
167
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
The depicted HALS is appropriate for
The depicted HILS has elevated FATO
Notes:
FARA
PRECISION
INSTRUMENT
FATO
HELIPORT APPROACH
LIGHT SYSTEM (HALS)
10 LIGHT BARS
@ 100 FT [30.5 M] SPACING
a heliport located at an elevation up to
1,000 ft [305 m] above mean sea level.
1.
2.
edge lights. Flush FATO edge lights are
also an option. Flush FATO edge lights
would be placed just inside the FATO.
Figure 6–3. Heliport Approach Lighting System
168
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Chapter 7. Heliport Gradients and Pavement Design
701. General. This chapter provides guidance on designing heliport pavements, including design
loads, and addresses soil stabilization as a method of treating non paved operational surfaces. Provide a
present a reasonably smooth, uniformly graded surface for operational surfaces such as the TLOF, FATO,
safety areas, parking areas, taxi routes, and taxiways. Design the surfaces of a heliport to provide positive
drainage.
702. TLOF gradients.
a. General aviation heliport. To ensure drainage, design the TLOF to have a gradient between
0.5 percent and 2 percent.
b. Transport heliport. To ensure drainage, design the TLOF to have a longitudinal gradient
between 0.5 and 1 percent and a transverse gradient between 0.5 and 1.5 percent.
c. Hospital heliport. To ensure drainage, design the TLOF to have a gradient between 0.5 and
1 percent and 2 percent.
703. FATO gradients.
a. Load bearing FATO. Design a load bearing FATO to have a gradient between 0.5 percent
and 5 percent. Design the gradient to be not more than 2 percent in any areas where a helicopter is
expected to land. To ensure TLOF drainage, design gradients of rapid runoff shoulders to be between 3
and 5 percent. These standards are illustrated in Figure 7–1 below for a concrete TLOF and stabilized turf
FATO.
b. Non-load bearing FATO. When the FATO is non-load bearing and/or not intended for use
by the helicopter, there are no specific requirements for the gradient of the surface. In this case, design the
gradient to be 5 percent or more to ensure adequate drainage away from the area of the TLOF. However,
stabilize non-load bearing surfaces. See paragraph 707.
704. Safety area gradients. Design the surface of the safety area to be no steeper than a downward
slope of 2:1 (2 units horizontal in 1 unit vertical). In addition, make sure the surface of the safety area is
not higher than the FATO edge.
705. Parking area gradients. Design all helicopter parking area grades to not exceed 2 percent.
706. Taxiway and taxi route gradients. Design taxiway longitudinal gradients to not exceed 2
percent. Design transverse gradients to be between 0.5 percent and 2 percent.
169
SAFETY FATO AREA
TLOF SHOULDER
Notes:
1. Slope direction based on site topography.
2. For dimensions of the TLOF, shoulder, FATO and Safety Area, see appropriate chapter.
3. Stabilize FATO non-load bearing surfaces.
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure 7–1. Heliport Grades and Rapid Runoff Shoulder: Gradients and Pavement
170
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
707. Design loads. Design and construct the TLOF and any load-bearing surfaces to support the
weight of the design helicopter and any ground support vehicles. Loads are applied through the contact
area of the tires for wheel-equipped helicopters or the contact area of the skid for skid equipped
helicopters. Find lists of Helicopter weights, landing gear configurations, and dimensional data in
Appendix B.
a. Static loads. For design purposes, the design static load is equal to the helicopter’s maximum
takeoff weight applied through the total contact area of the wheels or skids. Contact manufacturers to
obtain the contact area for the specific helicopters of interest.
b. Dynamic loads. A dynamic load of 0.2 second or less duration may occur during a hard
landing. For design purposes, assume dynamic loads at 150 percent of the takeoff weight of the design
helicopter. When specific loading data is not available, assume 75 percent of the weight of the design
helicopter to be applied equally through the contact area of the rear two rear wheels (or the pair rear
wheels of a dual-wheel configuration) of a wheel-equipped helicopter. For a skid equipped helicopter
assume 75 percent of the weight of the design helicopter to be applied equally through the aft contact
areas of the two skids of a skid-equipped helicopter. (See Figure 7–2.) Contact manufacturers to obtain
the aft contact area for specific helicopters of interest.
c. Rotor loads. Rotor downwash loads are approximately equal to the weight of the helicopter
distributed uniformly over the disk area of the rotor. Tests have established that rotor downwash loads are
generally less than the loads specified in building codes for snow, rain, or wind loads typically used in
structural design calculations.
708. Pavement design and soil stabilization. Pavements distribute helicopters’ weight over a larger
area of the subsurface as well as provide a water-impervious, skid-resistant wearing surface. Pave TLOFs,
FATOs, taxiways, and parking aprons to improve their load carrying ability, minimize the erosive effects
of rotor wash, and facilitate surface runoff. Stabilize unpaved portions of the FATO and taxi routes
subjected to rotor wash. In some instances, loads imposed by ground support vehicles may exceed those
of the largest helicopter expected to use the facility. Find guidance on pavement design and on stabilizing
soils in AC 150/5320-6, Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation, and AC 150/5370-10, Standards for
Specifying Construction of Airports. These ACs are available at the Airports web site
(http://www.faa.gov/airports).
a. Pavements. In most instances, a 6-inch thick (15 cm) portland cement concrete (PCC)
pavement is capable of supporting operations by helicopters weighing up to 20,000 pounds (9,070 kg).
Use thicker pavements for heavier helicopters or where the quality of the subsurface soil is questionable.
If feasible, use PCC pavement for all surfaces used by helicopters.
b. Stabilizing soils. Use appropriate methods of soil stabilization to meet different site
requirements. Consider helicopter weight, ground support vehicle weight, operational frequency, soil
analysis, and climatic conditions in selecting the method(s) and extent of surface stabilization.
(1) Turf. A well-drained and well-established turf that presents a smooth, dense surface is
usually the most cost-effective surface stabilization available. In some combinations of climates and
weather conditions, turf surfaces are capable of supporting the weight of many of the smaller helicopters
for low frequency use by private and corporate operators during much of the year. Turf surfaces also
provide reasonable protection against wind, rotor wash, or water erosion. Climatic and soil conditions
dictate the appropriate grass species to use at the site. Find guidance on turf establishment in AC
150/5370-10.
(2) Aggregate turf. Where heliports are located on soils that have poor load-carrying
capabilities when wet, consider overcoming this deficiency by mixing selected granular materials into the
upper 12 inches (30 cm) of the soil. Suitable granular materials for this purpose are crushed stone, pit-run
171
DYNAMIC LOAD = 1.5 X GW
0.75 X GW 0.75 X GW
TYPICAL SINGLE WHEEL CONFIGURATION
DYNAMIC LOAD = 1.5 X GW
0.75 X GW 0.75 X GW
TYPICAL DUAL WHEEL CONFIGURATION
CONTACT AREA
D
GW = GROSS WEIGHT D = SKID TUBE DIAMETER
D CL = CUFF LENGTH C = CONTACT AREA = 2 x 1 2
1 CL
TYPICAL SKID CONFIGURATION
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
gravel, coarse sand, or oyster shells. Use a sufficient ratio of aggregate to soil to improve the stability of
the soil yet retain the soil’s ability to support grass. For additional guidance, see Item 217 of AC
150/5370-10.
c. Formed masonry shapes. Precast masonry shapes vary in size and shape-from a brick paver
to an open block. Lay pavers on a prepared bed to present a solid surface. Embed precast blocks in the
soil with grass growing in the natural openings. Architectural catalogs identify different masonry shapes
that are commercially available for this purpose.
d. Pierced metal panels. Lay perforated metal panels that allow grass to grow through the
openings on the ground to provide a hard surface for helicopter operations. Engineering catalogs identify
commercially available panels.
Figure 7–2. Helicopter Landing Gear Loading: Gradients and Pavement
172
SAFETY FATO AREA
RAISED FATO
TLOF OMNIDIRECTIONAL LIGHT
FATO ELEVATION 2 IN
MAX
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure 7–3. FATO Elevation
173
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
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4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Appendix A. Emergency Helicopter Landing Facilities (EHLF)
A-1. General. Preplanning emergency landing areas will result in safer and more effective air-support
operations. These facilities comprise rooftop emergency facilities and medical emergency sites. Use the
following as a guide for developing emergency helicopter landing facilities (EHLF).
A-2. Notification and coordination. In addition to any requirements to provide notice under part 157,
advise the local Terminal Approach Radar Control or the local Air Traffic Control facility manager in
writing of the EHLF.
A-3. Rooftop emergency facilities. Review local building codes to determine if they require
structures over a specified height to provide a clear area on the roof capable of accommodating a
helicopter to facilitate fire fighting or emergency evacuation operations.
a. Building code requirements. State and local building code requirements apply to rooftop
facilities. Develop the landing surface to the local fire department requirements based on the size and
weight of the helicopter(s) expected to engage in fire or rescue operations (see Figure A-1). Find
additional information in various National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) publications. For more
reference material, see Appendix D.
b. TLOF.
(1) Size. Design the TLOF to be square, rectangular or circular in configuration and centered
within the EHLF. Design the length and width or diameter to be at least 40 feet (12.2 m)
(2) Weight capacity. Design the TLOF to accept a 13,500-pound gross weight (GW)
helicopter plus an impact load of 1.5 times GW.
(3) Access. Provide two pedestrian access points to the TLOF at least 90 degrees apart with a
minimum of 60 feet (18 m) TLOF perimeter separation.
(4) Drainage. Design the surface so drainage flows away from pedestrian access points, with
a maximum slope of 1.5 percent.
c. FATO. Design the FATO to be at the same level as the TLOF.
(1) Size. Design the FATO to extend a distance of at least 45 feet (13.7 m) in all directions
from the center of the EHLF. For safe operation, provide clearance of one third of the rotor diameter (RD)
of the largest helicopter expected but not less than 20 feet (6.1 m)between the helicopter’s main and tail
rotor blades and any object that could be struck by these blades.
(2) Obstructions. As an option, design the FATO to be an imaginary surface outside the
TLOF and extending beyond the structure edge. Design the FATO to be unobstructed and without
penetration of obstacles such as parapets, window washing equipment, penthouses, handrails, antennas,
vents, etc.
d. Safety area. Provide a clear, unobstructed area, a minimum of 12 feet (3.7 m) wide, on all
sides, outside and adjacent to the FATO.
e. Safety net. If the platform is elevated 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above its surroundings, Title 29
CFR Part 1910.23 Guarding Floor and Wall Openings and Holes, requires the provision of fall protection.
The FAA recommends such protection for all platforms elevated 30 inches (76 cm) or more. However, do
not use permanent railings or fences, since they would be safety hazards during helicopter operations. As
an option, install a safety net, meeting state and local regulations but not less than 5 feet (1.5 m) wide.
Design the safety net to have a load carrying capability of 25 lbs/sq ft (122 kg/sq m). Make sure the net
does not project above the level of the TLOF. Fasten both the inside and outside edges of the safety net to
a solid structure. Construct nets of materials that are resistant to environmental effects.
175
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
f. Markings.
(1) TLOF perimeter. Define the limits of the touchdown pad with a solid 12-inch (30 cm)
wide red or orange line as illustrated in Figure A-1.
(2) Touchdown/positioning circle (TDPC) marking. Center a 12-inch wide red or orange
circular marking, 30 feet (9.1 m) in diameter, within the TLOF. Use a contrasting color for the
background within the circle.
(3) Weight capacity. Mark the TLOF with the maximum takeoff weight of the design
helicopter, in units of thousands of pounds (for example, a number “9,” indicating 9,000 lbs GW), with
each numeral ten feet in length, centered within the TLOF.
(4) Markings for pedestrians. Clearly mark rooftop access paths, EHLF access paths, and
assembly zone(s) with surface paint and instructional signage.
g. Access.
(1) Stairs. Provide a minimum of two rooftop access stairs, with no less than 150 degrees
separation, connecting to the top floor of the structure, with at least one providing access to the structure’s
emergency staircase.
(2) Doors. Keep penthouse and stairwell rooftop access doors unlocked at all times to
provide access to the EHLF. As an option, equip doors with “panic bar” hardware and/or alarm them.
h. Wind cone. Locate a wind cone assembly with an orange wind cone within the line of sight
from the EHLF and outside the approach/departure path(s).
i. Lighting. Shield ambient rooftop lighting to avoid affecting the pilot’s vision.
A-4. Medical emergency sites. Medical emergency sites are clear and level areas near the scene of an
accident or incident that the local emergency response team designates as the place where the helicopter
air ambulance is directed to land in order to transport an injured person to a hospital. Provide such sites in
various locations within a jurisdiction to support fast response to medical emergencies and accidents. Predesignating
medical emergency sites provides the opportunity to inspect potential sites in advance and to
select sites that have adequate clear approach/departure airspace and adequate clear ground space.
176
OPTIONAL WIND CONE
ROOF FREE OF LOOSE GRAVEL
12 IN [30 CM] WIDE RED/ORANGE
CIRCLE AND PERIMETER MARKING
CAUTION
HELICOPTER LANDING
AREA
SAFETY
AVOID FRONT AND REAR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
STAY CLEAR
OF THE
AVOID FRONT AND REAR TAIL ROTOR
AREA OF HELICOPTER
APPROACH AND LEAVE HELICOPTER AS DIRECTED BY CREW
IN A CROUCHED MANNER WHEN ROTORS ARE TURNING
Note: 9,000 lb weight limitation indicated in center of circle.
INSTRUCTIONS
AUTHORIZED
PERSONNEL
ONLY
POST AT PERSONNEL ENTRANCE
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Figure A-1. Rooftop Emergency Landing Facility
177
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
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178
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Appendix B. Helicopter Data
This appendix contains selected helicopter data needed by a heliport designer. These data represent the
most critical weight, dimensional, or other data entry for that helicopter model, recognizing that specific
versions of the model may weigh less, be smaller in some feature, carry fewer passengers, etc.
Various helicopter manufacturers have provided this information, but confirm data by contacting the
manufacturer(s) of the specific helicopter(s) of interest.
Legend
A Manufacturer name and helicopter model
B Maximum takeoff weight in pounds.
D Overall length in feet. (Rotors at their maximum extension.)
H Overall height in feet. (Usually at tail rotor.)
RD Rotor diameter in feet.
E Number of blades.
F Rotor plane clearance in feet.
TR Distance from rotor hub to tip of tail rotor in feet.
I Tail rotor diameter (in feet).
J Number of tail rotor blades.
K Tail rotor ground clearance in feet.
L Type of undercarriage.
UCL Undercarriage length in feet.
UCW Undercarriage width in feet. (The distance between the outside
edges of the tires or the skids.)
M Number and type of engines
N Number of crew and passengers.
179
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
180
Manufacturer/
Model
Max Takeoff Weight
Overall Length (ft)
Overall Height (ft)
Main Rotor Tail Rotor Undercarriage
Number of Engines/ Type
Crew Number/ Pax
Number
Diameter (ft)
Number of Blades
Ground Clearance
(ft)
Tail Rtr Circle
Radius (ft)
Diameter (ft)
Number of Blades
Ground Clearance
(ft)
Type
Length (ft)
Width (ft)
A B D H RD E F TR I J K L UCL UCW M N
AgustaWestland
A-109A 5,732 42.8 11.2 36.1 4 10 25 6.7 2 2.3 wheel 11.6 7.5 2-T
1-2&
6-7
A-119 Koala 5,997 42.7 12.4 36.6 4 8.3 25.5 6.4 2 4.2 skid 13.4 5.5 1-T 1&6-7
AW-109E Power 6,283 42.8 11.5 36.1 4 8 6.4 2 3 wheel 11.5 7.1 2-T 1&7
AW-109S Grand 7,000 42.5 11.2 35.5 4 8 6.4 2 3.3 wheel 12.3 7.1 2-T
1-2&
6-7
AW-119 Ke 6,283 42.4 11.8 35.5 4 9.3 6.4 2 3.8 skid 11.1 7 1-T 1&6-7
AW-139 14,991 54.7 16.4 42.6 5 12.9 8.9 4 7.5 wheel 14.2 10 2-T
1-2&
15
AW-101 34,392 74.8 21.7 61 5 15.4 45 13.1 8.4 wheel 23 14.8 3-T 3&30
Westland WG30 12,800 52.2 15.5 43.7 4 12.5 31 8 4 7.5 wheel 17.9 10.1 2+T 2&19
Bell Helicopter
47G 2,950 43.6 9.3 37.1 2 5 25 6.1 2 3.5 skid 9.9 7.5 1-P 1&2-3
205B, UH-1H,
Huey II, 210 10,500 57.8 14.5 48 2 7.3 33.1 8.5 2 5.9 skid 12.1 8.8 1-T 1&14
206B-1,2,3 3,350 39.2 10.8 33.4 2 6 22.5 5.2 2 2.1 skid 8.1 6.7 1-T 1&4
206L-1,3,4 4,450 42.4 10.9 37 2 6.4 24 5.4 2 3.5 skid 9.9 7.7 1-T 1&6
212 11,200 57.3 14.9 48.2 2 7.5 22.2 8.5 2 6.1 skid 12.1 8.8 2-T 1&14
214ST 17,500 62.2 15.9 52 2 6.5 37 9.7 2 3.5 wheel/
skid 12.1 8.6 2-T
2& 16-
17
222B, UT 8,250 50.3 12.2 42 2 9.2 29.2 6.9 2 2.7 wheel/
skid 12.2 7.8 2-T 1&9
230 8,400 50.3 11.7 42 2 9.2 29.2 6.9 2 2.7 wheel/
skid 12.2 7.8 2-T 1&9
407 5,250 41.4 10.2 35 4 7.8 24.3 5.4 2 3.2 skid 9.9 8.1 1-T 1&6
412EP, SP, HP 11,900 56.2 14.9 46 4 11.5 34 8.6 2 4.8 skid 12.1 9.5 2-T 1&14
427VFR 6,550 42.6 10.5 37 4 6.4 24.1 5.7 2 3.3 skid 10 8.3 2-T 1&7
429 7,000 43 13.3 36 4 8.5 5.4 2 3.5 skid 9.9 8.8 2-T 1&7
430 9,300 50.3 13.3 42 4 8.2 29.2 6.9 2 3.7 wheel/
skid 12.4 9.2 2-T 1&9
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
181
Manufacturer/
Model
Max Takeoff Weight
Overall Length (ft)
Overall Height (ft)
Main Rotor Tail Rotor Undercarriage
Number of Engines/ Type
Crew Number/ Pax
Number
Diameter (ft)
Number of Blades
Ground Clearance
(ft)
Tail Rtr Circle
Radius (ft)
Diameter (ft)
Number of Blades
Ground Clearance
(ft)
Type
Length (ft)
Width (ft)
A B D H RD E F TR I J K L UCL UCW M N
Boeing
107/CH-46E 24,300 84.3 16.7 51 3 15 59 51 3 17 wheel 24.9 14.5 2-T 3&25
234/CH-47F/G 54,000 99 19 60 3 11 69 60 3 19 wheel 22.5 10.5 2-T 3&44
Brantly/ Hynes
B-2B 1,670 28.1 6.9 23.8 3 4.8 16 4.3 2 3 skid 7.5 6.8 1-P 1&1
305 2,900 32.9 8.1 28.7 3 8 19 4.3 2 3
wheel/
skid 6.2 6.8 1-P 1&4
Enstrom
F-28F/ 280FX 2,600 29.3 9 32 3 6 20.6 4.7 2 3.1 skid 8 7.3 1-P 1&2
480B/ TH-28 3,000 30.1 9.7 32 3 6.5 21.2 5 2 3.6 skid 9.2 8 1-T 1&4
Erickson
S-64E/F Air
Crane
42,000

47,000
88.5 25.4 72 6 15.7 53 16 4 9.4 wheel 24.4 19.9 2-T 3&0
Eurocopter
SA-315 Lama 5,070 42.3 10.2 36.2 3 10.1 20 6.3 3 3.2 skid 10.8 7.8 1-T 1&4
SA-316/319
Alouette 4,850 33.4 9.7 36.1 3 9.8 27.7 6.3 3 2.8 wheel 11.5 8.5 1-T 1&4
SA-330 Puma 16,315 59.6 16.9 49.5 4 14.4 35 10 5 6 wheel 13.3 9.8 2-T 2&20
SA/AS-332,
Super Puma 20,172 61.3 16.3 53.1 4 14.6 36 10 5 7.1 wheel 17.3 9.8 2-T 2&24
SA-341/342
Gazelle 4,100 39.3 10.2 34.5 3 8.9 23 Fenstr
on
2.4 skid 6.4 6.6 1-T 1&4
AS-350 A Star 4,960 42.5 11 35.1 3 10.6 25 6.1 2 2.3 skid 4.7 7.5 1-T 1&6
AS-355 Twin
Star 5,732 42.5 9.9 35.9 3 10.3 25 6.1 2 2.3 skid 9.6 7.1 2-T 1&6
AS-360 Dauphin 6,600 43.3 11.5 37.7 4 10.7 25 Fenstr
on
2.6 wheel 23.7 6.4 1-T 1&13
AS-365
Dauphin/H-65
Dolphin
9,480 45.1 13.3 39.2 4 11.4 24 Fenstr
on
2.6 wheel 11.9 6.2 2-T 1&11
BO-105 5,732 38.9 11.5 32.3 4 9.8 23 6.2 2 6.1 skid 8.3 8.2 2-T 1&5
BK-117 7,385 42.7 12.6 36.1 4 11 25 6.4 2 6.3 skid 11.6 8.2 2-T 1&10
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
182
Manufacturer/
Model
Max Takeoff Weight
Overall Length (ft)
Overall Height (ft)
Main Rotor Tail Rotor Undercarriage
Number of Engines/ Type
Crew Number/ Pax
Number
Diameter (ft)
Number of Blades
Ground Clearance
(ft)
Tail Rtr Circle
Radius (ft)
Diameter (ft)
Number of Blades
Ground Clearance
(ft)
Type
Length (ft)
Width (ft)
A B D H RD E F TR I J K L UCL UCW M N
EC-120 3,780 37.8 11.2 32.8 3 10.1 24.6 Fenstr
on
2.1 skid 9.4 6.8 1-T 1&4
EC-130 5,291 41.5 11.8 35.1 3 11 23.7 Fenstr
on
5.3 skid 10.5 7.9 1-T 1&7
EC-135 6,250 40 11.5 33.5 4 11 22.8 Fenstr
on
5.6 skid 10.5 6.6 2-T 1&6
EC-145/ UH-72A 7,904 42.7 13 36.1 4 11.3 28 6.4 2 10.7 skid 9.5 7.9 2-T 1&8
EC-155 10,692 46.9 14.27 41.3 5 12 23 Fenstr
on
3.1 wheel 12.8 6.2 2-T 2&12
EC-225 24,332 64 16.3 53.1 5 15.1 38 10.3 4 3.5 wheel 17.2 9.8 2-T 2&24
Kaman
K-Max/ K1200 7,000 52 21 48.2 4 10.7 28 n a n/a wheel 15.3 11.3 1-T 1&0
SH-2G Seasprite 14,200 52.5 15.1 44 4 8.1 4 wheel 2-T 3&8
MD Helicopters
500E 3,000 30.8 8.4 26.4 5 8.2 4.6 2 2 skid 8.1 6.3 1-T 1&4
530F 3,100 32.1 8.1 27.4 5 8 19 4.8 2 1.3 skid 8.1 6.4 1-T 1&4
520N 3,350 32.1 9.7 27.4 5 9.2 17 NOTA
R
n/a skid 8.1 6.3 1-T 1&4
600N 4,100 36.9 9.8 27.5 6 9.2 NOTA
R
n/a skid 10.1 8.8 1-T 1&7
Explorer/ 902 6,500 38.8 12 33.8 5 12 23 NOTA
R
n/a skid 7.3 7.3 2-T
1-2&
6-7
Robinson
R-22 Beta 1,370 28.8 8.9 25.2 2 8.8 16 3.5 2 4.1 skid 4.2 6.3 1-P 1&1
R-44 Raven 2,500 38.3 10.8 33 2 10.5 22 4.8 2 3.8 skid 4.2 7.2 1-P 1&3
R-66 Turbine 2,700 38.3 11.4 33 2 10.5 5 2 3.6 skid 4.2 7.5 1-T 1&4
Fairchild-Hiller/
Rogerson-Hiller
360/UH-12/OH-
23
3,100 40.8 10.2 35.4 2 10.1 23 6 2 4 skid 8.3 7.5 1-P 1&3
FH/RH-1100 3,500 41.3 9.2 35.3 2 9.5 24 6 2 3 skid 7.9 7.2 1-T 1&4
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
183
Manufacturer/
Model
Max Takeoff Weight
Overall Length (ft)
Overall Height (ft)
Main Rotor Tail Rotor Undercarriage
Number of Engines/ Type
Crew Number/ Pax
Number
Diameter (ft)
Number of Blades
Ground Clearance
(ft)
Tail Rtr Circle
Radius (ft)
Diameter (ft)
Number of Blades
Ground Clearance
(ft)
Type
Length (ft)
Width (ft)
A B D H RD E F TR I J K L UCL UCW M N
Sikorsky/
Schweizer
HU-269A/A-1/B,
TH55A 1,850 29 9 26 3 8.8 15 3.8 2 2.5 skid 8.3 6.5 1-P 1&1
300C 2,050 30.8 8.7 26.8 3 8.7 15.3 4.3 2 2.8 skid 8.3 6.5 1-P 1&2
300CB/CBi 1,750 30.8 8.7 26.8 3 8.7 15.3 4.3 2 2.8 skid 8.3 6.5 1-P 1&1
330/330SP/ 333 2,550 31.2 11 27.5 3 9.2 15.3 4.3 2 3.2 skid 8.3 6.5 1-T 1&2-3
S-434 2,900 31.2 11 27.5 4 9.2 15.3 4.3 2 3.2 skid 8.3 6.5 1-T 1&2-3
S-55/H19 7,900 62.6 13.1 53 3 8.2 2 wheel 1-T 2&12
S-58/H34 14,600 65.8 15.9 56 4 11.4 38 9.5 4 6.4 wheel 28.3 14 2-T 2&16
S-61/H-3 22,000 72.8 19 62 5 12.3 40 10.3 5 8.6 wheel 23.5 14 2-T 3&28
S-76A/B/C/D 11,700 52.5 14.6 44 4 8.2 30.5 8 4 6.5 wheel 16.4 8 2-T 2&12
S-92 26,500 68.5 17.9 56.3 4 9.8 39.9 11 4 6.9 wheel 20.3 10.4 2-T 2&19
S-70i/UH-60L
Blackhawk 22,000 64.8 16.8 53.8 4 7.7 38 11 4 6.6 wheel 29 9.7 2-T 3&12
CH-53K 74,000 99.5 27.8 79 7 17 59.6 20 4 9.5 wheel 27.3 13 3-T 3&55
R
D
D
TR
H F
I K
UCW
UCL
D
TR
I
RD
H
F
K
UCL UCW
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
Figure B–1. Helicopter Dimensions
184
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
Appendix C. Dimensions for Marking Size and Weight Limitations
The form and proportion of numbers for marking TLOF and parking area size and weight limitations are
shown below.
All characters have the following characteristics (Unless otherwise specified):
Horizontal stroke of 6 in [15 cm]
Vertical stroke of 5 in [13 cm]
18 in [46 cm] wide
36 in [91cm] high
12 IN [30 CM]
16 IN
[41 CM]
5 IN
[13 CM]
13 IN
[33 CM]
3 IN
[8 CM]
12 IN [30 CM]
13 IN [33 CM] 5 IN [13 CM]
12 IN [30 CM]
7 IN [18 CM]
5 IN
[13 CM]
2 PL
14 IN
[35 CM] 10 IN [25 CM]
4 IN [10 CM]
10 IN [25 CM] HORIZONTAL
STROKE
VERTICAL
STROKE
2 IN [5 CM] 5 IN
[13 CM]
10 IN [25 CM]
24 IN [60 CM]
23 IN
[58 CM]
2 IN [5 CM] 5 IN [13 CM]
12 IN [30 CM] 24 IN [60 CM]
Figure C–1. Form and Proportions of 36 Inch (91 cm) Numbers
for Marking Size and Weight Limitations
185
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
All characters have the following characteristics (Unless otherwise specified):
Horizontal stroke of 3.00 in [7.6 cm]
Vertical stroke of 2.50 in [6.3 cm]
9.00 in [22.8 cm] wide
18.00 in [45.7cm] high
[15.0 CM]
7.8 IN
[19.8 CM]
2.40 IN
[6.09 CM]
7.33 IN
[18.6 CM]
1.34 IN
[3.4 CM]
6.00 IN [15.0 CM]
2.19 IN
[15.0 CM]
3.60 IN
2.40 IN
[6.0 CM]
2 PL
7.20 IN
[18.2 CM]
4.80 IN
1.80 IN [4.5 CM]
4.80 IN [12.1 CM] HORIZONTAL
STROKE
VERTICAL
STROKE
1.25 IN
[3.1 CM] 2.40 IN
[6.0 CM]
4.80 IN [12.1 CM]
12.00 IN [30.0 CM]
11.40 IN
[4.5 CM]
1.20 IN [3.0 CM] 2.40 IN
6.00 IN 12.00 IN
[12.1 CM]
[9.1 CM]
6.00 IN
6.00 IN
6.60 IN
[16.7 CM]
[5.6 CM]
[6.09 CM]
[15.0 CM] [30.0 CM]
Figure C–2. Form and Proportions of 18 Inch (45.7 cm) Numbers
for Marking Size and Weight Limitation
186
4/24/2012 AC 150/5390-2C
187
Appendix D. Associated Publications and Resources
The following is a listing of related documents.
Current Advisory Circulars are available from the FAA web site
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/.
Current Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFRs) are available from the
Government Printing Office web site http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ecfr/.
Airport Advisory Circulars are available at the Airports web site
http://faa.gov/airports/resources/advisory_circulars/.
Technical reports are available at the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) web
site http://www.ntis.gov/.
To find state and regional aviation offices, see
http://www.faa.gov/airports/resources/state_aviation/.
For information about grant assurances, see
http:/www.faa.gov/airports/aip/grant_assurances.
1. 14 CFR Part 27, Airworthiness Standards: Normal Category Rotorcraft.
2. 14 CFR Part 29, Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Rotorcraft.
3. 14 CFR Part 77, Safe, Efficient Use, and Preservation of the Navigable Airspace.
4. 14 CFR Part 91, General Operating and Flight Rules.
5. 14 CFR Part 121, Air Carrier Certification.
6. 14 CFR Part 135, Operating Requirements: Commuter and on demand operations and rules governing
persons on board such aircraft.
7. 14 CFR Part 139, Certification of Airports.
8. 14 CFR Part 151, Federal Aid to Airports.
9. 14 CFR Part 152, Airport Aid Program.
10. 14 CFR Part 157, Notice of Construction, Alteration, Activation, and Deactivation of Airports.
11. AC 70/7460-1, Obstruction Marking and Lighting.
12. AC 150/5190-4, A Model Zoning Ordinance to Limit Height of Objects Around Airports.
13. AC 150/5200-30, Airport Winter Safety and Operations.
14. AC 150/5220-16, Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS) for Non-Federal Applications.
15. AC 150/5230-4, Aircraft Fuel Storage, Handling, and Dispensing on Airports.
16. AC 150/5300-18, General Guidance and Specifications for Submission of Aeronautical Surveys to
NGS: Field Data Collection and Geographic Information System (GIS) Standards.
17. AC 150/5320-6, Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation.
18. AC 150/5340-30, Design and Installation Details for Airport Visual Aids.
19. AC 150/5345-12, Specification for Airport and Heliport Beacons.
20. AC 150/5345-27, Specification for Wind Cone Assemblies.
21. AC 150/5345-28, Precision Approach Path Indicator Systems (PAPI).
AC 150/5390-2C 4/24/2012
22. AC 150/5345-39, FAA Specification L-853, Runway and Taxiway Retroreflective Markers.
23. AC 150/5345-46, Specification for Runway and Taxiway Light Fixtures.
24. AC 150/5345-52, Generic Visual Glideslope Indicators (GVGI).
25. AC 150/5360-9, Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Facilities at Non-Hub Locations.
26. AC 150/5360-14, Access to Airports by Individuals with Disabilities.
27. AC 150/5370-10, Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports.
28. FAA 8260-series orders, various on flight procedures, airspace, others.
a. FAA Order 8260.3B, U. S. Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS).
b. FAA Order 8260.54A, U.S. Standard for Area Navigation (RNAV).
c. FAA Order 8260.72, Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Fly-By (FB)/Radius-to-Fix
(RF) Turn Maximum Design Bank Angle Limits
29. FAA Grant Assurance No. 34, Policies, Standards, and Specifications.
30. FAA Order 1050.1 Policies and Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts.
31. FAA Order 5050.4, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Instructions for
Airport Projects.
32. FAA Order JO 7400.2, Procedures for Handling Airspace Matters.
33. FAA Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Assurance No. 9, Standards and Specifications
34. FAA Technical Report FAA/RD-84/25, Evaluating Wind Flow Around Buildings on Heliport
Placement, National Technical Information Service (NTIS) accession number AD-A153512.
35. FAA Technical Report FAA/RD-92/15, Potential Hazards of Magnetic Resonance Imagers to
Emergency Medical Service Helicopter Services, National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
accession number AD-A278877.
36. ICAO Annex 14, Vol. II – Heliports.
37. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 403, Standard for Aircraft Rescue and Fire-Fighting
Services.
38. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 407, Standard for Aircraft Fuel Servicing.
39. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 418, Standard for Heliports.
40. Roadmap for Performance Based Navigation (PBN).
188

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