Functional Anatomy and Exercise Physiology; LEVEL 4

Functional Anatomy and Exercise Physiology; LEVEL 4

RATIONALE
Knowledge and understanding of the basic anatomical and physiological functions of the human body are essential if you are to become an Exercise Scientist. With this knowledge you will be able to conduct physiological assessments of clients. When properly conducted and interpreted these assessments can be used to examine health and also predict exercise potential for training and performance.
AIMS
This module seeks to give students knowledge and understanding of:
• Basic human physiology
• The anatomy and function of the major physiological systems
LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is intended that by the end of this module you will be able to:
• Describe the anatomy and function of the major physiological systems of the human body
• Write succinct, accurate laboratory reports
• Demonstrate key skills of communication (produce written reports; incorporate tables, charts and diagrams in documents; collate information), numeracy (collect and analyse data), ICT (to present coursework; to obtain information), teamwork (working with others), and develop independent learning skills.
STRUCTURE and ASSESSMENT
150 hours of study of which two hours per week will be formal Lecture contact time. Laboratory Practical tests will comprise 1.5 hours per fortnight.
Practical Experiments
The manual contains practical experiments that you must complete as an electronic document for assessment. Each section contains:
• Background information
• Apparatus that you need
• The order of procedures
• Tables to record your data.
As part of a structured flexible learning package there are also tasks for you to complete and space for you to record answers to questions to show your understanding of each topic.
Allocation of marks
This manual comprises 40% of the module grade. All sections must be completed, however, only 2 practical reports, one chosen from each part (student blind/standardised for each year) are marked for your responses to questions (see subdivision below).
The manual is marked out of 100 and is subdivided as follows based on the 2 parts with 1 practical class randomly chosen from each part by the Lecturer.
Date of Submission
PART 1 Monday 2nd March 2015 (10am).
PART 2 Monday 20th April 2015 (10am).
Assessment:
PART 1 (Practicals 1 and 2)
Presentation and adherence to the guidelines 5
Completed questions, graphs and data sheet(s) 15
1 chosen practical session
Presentation and referenced responses to questions 30
PART 2 (Practicals 3 and 4)
Presentation and adherence to the guidelines 5
Completed questions, graphs and data sheet(s) 15
1 chosen practical session
Presentation and referenced responses to questions 30
Total 100
Responses to questions
The answer should be clear, concise and unambiguous.
Often the “correct” response to a question or instruction is open to debate. Two opposing views might be expressed which could attract a higher grade.
Where appropriate there should be evidence that you have pursued the background reading either to provide evidence to support your data or indicate discrepancies, which then have to be explained.
Your responses should as appropriate, relate to the data that have been collected by your subgroup, whole group or year group.
Analysis rather than simple description of data should be presented.
Marking criteria
The general marking criteria for this module are outlined in your Course Handbook. However, for clarification particular characteristics of a poor and a very good Manual are as follows:
Poor Manual (Final grade = 15 – 30 marks)
• The guidelines have not been observed.
• There are a number of illogical sentences, unfinished responses or empty space.
• Some of the entries are unintelligible.
• Data sheets are incomplete and some data are incorrectly located.
• Figures and tables do not follow convention and have axes that are improperly scaled, are not labelled and display values that do not correspond to values in the summary data tables.
• Inappropriate analyses have been carried out.
• Responses to questions are too brief or are expressed poorly.
• Data are described not analysed.
• Responses are either incorrect or inappropriate.
• Statements are not adequately supported by evidence from references.
• The appearance is rushed and lacks thought.
Very good Manual (Final grade = 70 – 90 marks)
• All of the relevant sections have been completed to a high standard.
• Work is presented neatly and carefully with precision.
• Data sheets have the correct information in the appropriate spaces.
• Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses are appropriate.
• Tables & Figures follow convention.
• Writing style is clear, concise and unambiguous.
• There is a logical development of ideas.
• There is clear evidence that the background reading has been undertaken and that appropriate support (references) for suggestions is provided.
• Anomalous data are identified and possible explanations for their existence are offered.
• Theories and concepts are examined incisively so demonstrating scholarship.
Attendance
Normally, laboratory classes will require you to work in small teams as the emphasis is on you to participate to obtain results. Thus, it is a requirement that you attend all sessions and arrive punctually and prepared to participate.
Recommended Reading
The following textbooks are considered key texts for Exercise Physiology Modules.
Specific key texts for each practical are often provided at the end of that section.
Åstrand P-O (2003). Textbook of Work Physiology: Physiological Bases of Exercise, (4th Ed). Human Kinetics.
Heyward (2006) Advanced Fitness Assessment & Exercise Prescription-5th Edition. Human Kinetics.
Hoffman J (2002). Physiological Aspects of Sport Training and Performance. Human Kinetics.
Maud and Foster (2006) Physiological Assessment of Human Fitness. Human Kinetics (2nd Edition).
*McArdle W D, Katch F I & Katch V L (2009). Exercise Physiology. Nutrition, Energy And Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
*Powers S K, Howley E H (2012). Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. McGraw-Hill (8th edition).
Wilmore J H & Costill D L Kenney L (2011) Physiology of Exercise & Sport. Human Kinetics.
Winter E M et al (2007). Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Guidelines. The BASES Guide. Volume: Sport Testing. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Winter E M et al (2007). Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Guidelines. The BASES Guide. Volume 2: Exercise and Clinical Testing. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Journals
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
British Journal of Sports Medicine
European Journal of Applied Physiology
International Journal of Sports Medicine
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Journal of Sports Sciences
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sports Medicine
We hope that you enjoy your time with us in the Exercise Physiology Laboratory and find your education to be a rewarding experience.
Dr. Judith Allgrove
Dr Owen Spendiff
Further information on Lectures can be found on the Virtual Learning Environment –StudySpace online at the University website.
PRACTICAL 1
Skeletal Muscle Force
This Practical comprises four parts, the Laboratory group will be split into two, half will cover part one, the other parts three-four and then swap.
Part One: Assessment of handgrip strength using shouting as a stimulus
Skeletal muscles are innervated (stimulated) by a special type of excitatory neuron input called a alpha motor neuron, which allows us to activate our muscles and produce a force. However, the body also has a protective neuron (inhibitory neuron) that is used to control how much force we can produce and so do not get injured.
Among the inhibitory inputs to the alpha motor neurones are those arising from the golgi tendon organs, a sensory device located within a tendon which protects the muscle from possible injury by causing the muscle to relax or limit the number of muscle fibres recruited during an activity. This reflex relaxation process is protective in nature and is to prevent muscle rupture.
During maximal force production, athletes sometimes yell or scream as they produce a force in an attempt to produce more force, run faster, lift heavier. However, does this actually produce more force? Will yelling override the golgi tendon organ? It is the purpose of this experiment to examine the effect of shouting on handgrip strength.
Equipment (handgrip dynamometers)
Procedures
Students measure and record their maximal handgrip strength for both dominant and non-dominant hand both quietly and shouting
• To allow appropriate recovery between trials and so that everyone is involved we need to get into groups of four/five.
• The instructor will identify who is group 1, 2 etc.
• Within your group identify who is A, B, C & D.
Stage 1: Do not make any noise or encouragement
• The order of assessment should be as follows: –
1. Student A dominant hand.
2. Student B dominant hand.
3. Student C Non-dominant hand.
4. Student D Non-dominant hand.
5. Student A Non-dominant hand.
6. Student B Non-dominant hand.
7. Student C dominant hand.
8. Student D dominant hand.
• On completion repeat the trial in the same order, but this time shout the word Strength while you squeeze the dynamometer.
• Record your result in the table below
Student Dominant
No-shout Non-dominant
No shout Dominant
Shout Non-dominant
Shout
A 40 42 44 47
B 44 44 40 43
C 26 26 25 29
D 24 27 22 23
E
Total 134 139 131 142
• Record the full laboratory group result in the table below.
Group
Totals Dominant
No-shout Non-dominant
No shout Dominant
Shout Non-dominant
Shout
1 234 211 233 229
2 134 139 131 142
3 206 203 224 221
4
5
6
Total 574 553 588 592
Q1: Which hand produced the most force and why?
Q2: Did shouting make any difference to your personal and group scores?
Q3: What type of muscle action (contraction) did you use?
Q4: As the test progressed what other things could have influenced hand strength? Think about the study experimental design.
Q5: Explain the Golgi Tendon Mechanism?
Part Two: Assessment of peak torque
Successful sporting achievement is highly associated with a sound knowledge of the underlying scientific principles of physiology. The force an athlete can produce is determined by different physiological factors such as muscle mass, neural activation and muscle fibre types and will therefore vary amongst individuals. Understanding how force production is also influenced by the type of muscle action is fundamental to our understanding of human physiology. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the resultant forces/torques produced during three different muscle actions. NB. Torque is a representative value of force in a rotational context.
Procedures
Your instructor will lead half the laboratory group through the experiment.
With the participant seated, eccentric and concentric assessment of the maximal force of the right quadriceps at 30 degrees per second will be recorded, followed by an isometric muscle action at 55 degrees angle of extension.
Table 1. Record the results in the table below
Isometric (Nm) Concentric (Nm) Eccentric (Nm)
252 178 316
Draw a Bar Chart to show the peak torque outputs by type of muscular action
Q6: For each of the muscle actions, explain why the forces/torques recoded are different.
Part Three: Length tension relationship
This experiment serves to illustrate how the degree of overlap between actin and myosin at different angles across a full range of motion reveals the length tension relationship in muscle.
Procedures
Your instructor will lead a small group through the experiment.
With the participant seated, an assessment of the force/torque produced at the following knee angles will be undertaken during a concentric knee extension.
NB: Depending on time, you might only complete three of the five angles – 10, 50 and 90°.
Angle 10º 30º 50º 70º 90º
Torque (Nm) 111 133 225 279 339
Draw a Bar Chart to show the peak torque outputs by angle of muscular action
Q7: Which angle allowed for the greatest force/torque production and explain the physiological mechanisms for this. Think about degree of actin and myosin overlap.
Part Four: Relationship between torque and velocity
The velocity of an action is important, as the force/torque the muscle can generate will vary with the velocity and is dependent on muscle fibre types. This is known as the force-velocity or torque-velocity relationship. To investigate this relationship the peak torque at each of the following velocities will be collected for concentric muscle action of knee extension.
Procedures
Your instructor will lead a small group through the experiment.
With the participant seated, an assessment of the force/torque produced at the following velocities will be undertaken during a concentric knee extension.
NB: Depending on time, you might only complete three of the six velocities – 30, 120 and 180.
Velocity 30 60 90 120 150 180
Torque (Nm) 229 188 204 146 143 100
Draw a Bar Chart to show the peak torque outputs by velocity of muscular action
Q8: Which velocity allowed for the greatest force production? Explain the physiological mechanisms for this. Think about muscle fibre types and recruitment rates related to velocity of action.
Practical 2A
Measurement of Cardiovascular Variables: Does Posture Affect Heart Rate and ECG?
Contraction of the heart is caused by an electrical signal that arises spontaneously in an area of the heart in the right atrium called the sinoatrial node (SA node). The wave of excitation that spreads through the wall of the heart is accompanied by electrical changes (like nerves and skeletal muscle, active cardiac muscle is electrically negative relative to resting cardiac muscle ahead of the zone of excitation). The electrical changes produced are conducted to the body surface and can be detected, amplified and recorded using an instrument known as an electrocardiograph. The record obtained is known as an electrocardiogram (ECG) (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Typical Electrocardiograph
During this part of the practical you will measure an ECG signal from volunteers in your group.
Apparatus
3 lead ECG/10 lead ECG
Razor, alcohol wipes, disposal pre-gelled electrodes
Ruler
Procedure
Place the electrodes on the participant as follows:
Electrode 1 RED – on the upper, right hand side of the torso (just above the nipple).
Electrode 2 YELLOW – on the left hand side of the torso (just above the nipple).
Electrode 3 BLACK – Below the left nipple.
Ensure that an ECG signal is being obtained.
• Lay the participant in a supine position and allow them to remain there for 5 minutes.
• Record an ECG for 1 minute.
• Record heart rate.
Q1: From your printout identify the PQRST & U complex on it. Please explain (in the box below) what each letter represents within the cardiac cycle.
Q2. What other ECG procedures are available and how might they offer a more informative diagnostic assessment?
Q3. Outline 2 heart maladies and how these can be identified on an ECG trace.
References
Powers S K, Howley E H (2012). Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. McGraw-Hill (8th edition).
McArdle W D, Katch F I & Katch V L (2009). Exercise Physiology. Nutrition, Energy And Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Sherwood L (2006). Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. Wadsworth (6th edition). Chapter 10.
Practical 2B
Measurement of Cardiovascular Variables: Does Posture Affect Blood Pressure?
Blood will always tend to flow from an area of high pressure to one of low pressure. As blood is ejected from the ventricles into the arteries during ventricular systole, the blood pressure reaches a maximum known as systolic blood pressure. An average systolic blood pressure is approximately 120 mmHg and represents an estimate of the work of the heart and of the pressure against the arterial walls during ventricular systole. Because the artery walls are elastic, they stretch to accommodate this surge in pressure and when the ventricles are in diastole, the arteries recoil to push the blood into the capillaries. The pressure in the system is now at a minimum and is known as diastolic pressure. An average diastolic pressure is approximately 80 mmHg and provides an indication of the resistance of the peripheral blood vessels (the peripheral resistance).
The main driving force for blood flow, however, is the mean arterial pressure (MAP) which is the average pressure responsible for driving blood into the tissues throughout the cardiac cycle. Mean arterial pressure can be calculated as follows:
MAP = Diastolic Pressure + 1/3 (Systolic Pressure – Diastolic Pressure)
Known as the pulse pressure
During this part of the practical you will measure blood pressure and calculate MAP and examine how these change in two different postures.
Apparatus
Sphygmomanometer
Stethoscope
Electronic blood pressure gauges
Procedure
Ensure your participant has been lying in a supine position quietly for 5 minutes.
• Wrap the inflatable cuff of the sphygmomanometer around the upper arm.
• Ensure that the air bleed valve is in the closed position and inflate the cuff until a pressure is registered on the mercury manometer of approximately 150-160 mmHg.
• Place the stethoscope over the position of the brachial artery and undo the air bleed valve allowing air to escape slowly.
• Listen for the onset of blood sounds (Korotkoff sounds) as the blood pressure exceeds the cuff pressure and allows turbulent flow through the blood vessel; the pressure that this occurs at is the systolic blood pressure.
• Listen for the disappearance of blood sounds, this corresponds to the onset of laminar flow through the blood vessel and the pressure that this occurs at is the diastolic pressure.
• Stand the participant in an upright position and repeat the above measurements.
Enter the data into table 1 below.
Table 1
Supine Standing
Systolic Blood Pressure 144 138
Diastolic Blood Pressure 80 82
MAP
156
Q1: Describe the concept of blood pressure and identify what are considered normal healthy values in males and females.
Q2: How do your results compare supine v standing and what is the physiological basis for any differences?eferences
Powers S K, Howley E H (2012). Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. McGraw-Hill (8th edition).
McArdle W D, Katch F I & Katch V L (2009). Exercise Physiology. Nutrition, Energy And Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Sherwood L (2006). Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. Wadsworth (6th edition). Chapter 10.
Practical 2C
Pulmonary Ventilation
The primary purpose of ventilation and respiration is to provide a means of gas exchange between the external environment and the body. In particular the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the blood. This exchange occurs as a result of ventilation and diffusion, which are controlled by numerous mechanisms. Pulmonary volumes can be measured via a technique known as Spirometry. A spirogram shows the measurement of tidal volumes and capacities, which can be compared to normal healthy values.
Apparatus
Vitalograph and peak flow meter
Procedure
Record each participants body mass, stature and age.
Body Mass 83 Kg Stature 166.5cm
NB
Identify your PREDICTED FVC and FEV1 from the prediction tables provided on the following pages pg 28-29.
Your ACTUAL FVC and FEV1 may be measured using a vitalograph/flow meters and values may be compared to tables of norms to check your pulmonary health.
Insert data into table 1.
Spirometry
• Select a disposable mouthpiece and place it in the Vitalograph.
• With a nose clip in place and following a maximal inspiration, exhale for as much and as long as possible.
• To calculate your ventilation parameters use the following instructions and tables of norms:
• Read off VC from the top vertical tracing on the Vitalograph sheet using the right hand BTPS scale.
• Repeat the procedure and record the best effort.
• Measurement of ACTUAL FVC and FEV1: Read and record the FVC from the highest curve elevation reached during the trace on the BTPS scale.
• Record the FEV1 (BTPS) as the height of the curve elevation after 1 second.Input your data into Table 1 and compare your readings to the table of norms.
Table 1: Spirometry & Ventilation
Age Gender Stature (m) Body Mass (kg)
Lung Function Predicted (L) Actual (L) Actual
÷
Predicted (%)
FVC (VC) 4.30 4.30 100
FEV1 3.6 3.80 97.7
Lung Efficiency %
ActFEV1
÷
actFVC
x
100 88.3
Report on your findings, using the following questions.
Q1: What were your actual vs predicted percentages?
Q2: Describe the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the blood at the lungs and the proposed mechanisms that control this interaction of gases, use references to support your answer.
References
Powers S K, Howley E H (2012). Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. McGraw-Hill (8th edition).
McArdle W D, Katch F I & Katch V L (2009). Exercise Physiology. Nutrition, Energy And Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Winter E M et al (2007). Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Guidelines. The BASES Guide. Volume: Sport Testing. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Practical 3
The Douglas Bag Procedure
In 1911 Claude Douglas devised a technique of collecting a patient’s exhaled air for analysis. This is now commonly known as the ‘Douglas Bag’ technique and is used mainly to assess VO2, despite a hundred years since its implementation into scientific thinking it is still often argued to be the gold standard measure.
Task:
Q1: With the introduction of newer and more technologically advanced methods of measuring oxygen consumption during exercise, provide a brief overview of the development of equipment and offer a critical argument for what method you argue as the gold standard.
Practical 3
Indirect Measurement of Energy Substrates:
The Respiratory Exchange Ratio
Of the various nutrients we eat, it is only carbohydrates, fats and to a lesser extent proteins that yield energy (in the form of Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP). Under normal conditions (an adequate nutrient supply), fuel for metabolic processes at rest and during exercise are limited to carbohydrates and fats. The percentage contribution of these substrates in energy metabolism is usually assessed by the determination of the ratio of the volume of Carbon Dioxide (VCO2) measurements of which are obtained during steady state conditions. This ratio is known as the Respiratory Exchange Ratio and reflects VCO2:VO2 at the level of the pulmonary system (VCO2:VO2 at the level of the cell is termed Respiratory Quotient or RQ). An RER of 0.7 indicates that fats are the principle substrate while an RER of 1 indicates that carbohydrates are the principle substrate (Table 1).
Table 1.
RER Carbohydrate (%) Fat (%) RER Carbohydrate (%) Fat (%)
0.70 0.00 100.00 0.86 52.20 47.80
0.71 1.02 98.98 0.87 55.60 44.40
0.72 4.40 95.60 0.88 59.00 41.00
0.73 7.85 92.20 0.89 62.50 37.50
0.74 11.30 88.70 0.90 65.90 34.10
0.75 14.70 85.30 0.91 69.30 30.70
0.76 18.10 81.90 0.92 72.70 27.30
0.77 21.50 78.50 0.93 76.10 23.90
0.78 24.90 75.10 0.94 79.50 20.50
0.79 28.30 71.70 0.95 82.90 17.10
0.80 31.70 68.30 0.96 86.30 13.70
0.81 35.20 64.80 0.97 89.80 10.20
0.82 38.60 61.40 0.98 93.20 6.80
0.83 42.00 58.00 0.99 96.60 3.40
0.84 45.40 54.60 1.00 100.00 0.00
0.85 48.80 51.20
The purpose of this laboratory practical is three fold,
i) to introduce the concept of gas analysis
ii) to examine the influence of exercise intensity of RER
iii) to identify the principle substrates utilised at differing intensities of exercise.
Apparatus
Monark cycle ergometer
Servomex gas analyser
Douglas bag and valves
Nose clip
Procedure
• The subject is seated on a suitably adjusted cycle ergometer and allowed to sit quietly for 5 minutes. During the final 1 minute, expired air is collected in a Douglas bag. Following collection of the expired air, it is measured for percentage O2, percentage CO2 and total volume (the method for doing this will be explained to you by your demonstrator). The data is entered into table 2 below.
• This is repeated with the subject exercising at an intensity of 60-Watts (light exercise).
• This is repeated with the subject exercising at 120-Watts (medium/heavy exercise).
Table 2.
Data
Body Mass 65kg Barometric Pressure 774mmhg
Stature 172cm Relative Humidity 29%
Age 18 Room Temperature 20,6
Gender m
Douglas Bag Rest 60-Watts 120-Watts
O2 (%) 19.1 16.4 16.1
CO2 (%) 0.51 2.7 3.26
Volume 2.7 2.7 3.26
Temperature 20.6
The data from table 2 together with relative humidity, barometric pressure and the room temperature should be entered into the Gascalc software to calculate VO2, VCO2 and RER and then entered into table 3 below.
Table 3.
Workload
Rest 60 Watts 120 Watts
VO2 0.5 0.09 0.17
VCO2 0.1 0.05 0.10
RER 0.2 0.53 0.61
Tasks
Plot a bar chart of VO2, VCO2 and RER against workload and import these into the space below using appropriate figure legends.
Q1: Describe what changes you observe in your bar charts in VO2, VCO2 and RER at rest and during exercise at intensities of 60 and 120 Watts and explain the relationship between exercise intensity and substrate utilization.
Q2: Theoretically the maximum value for the RER is 1. Explain why the value goes above 1 during high intensity exercise.
Q3: RER is typically a “non-protein RER”. What does this mean and why is it inaccurate?
References
Powers, S K, Howley E H (2012). Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. McGraw-Hill (8th edition). .
McArdle W D, Katch F I & Katch V L (2009). Exercise Physiology. Nutrition, Energy And Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Practical 4
Muscle Metabolism:
Indirect Estimation of Energy Production via the Phosphagen Pool,
Anaerobic Glycolysis and Aerobic Glycolysis
Energy sources for muscle action involve the metabolic production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the muscle itself and other cells. The energy is derived from the breakdown on foods and other components in both aerobic (with oxygen) and anaerobic (without oxygen) reactions. In order for muscle activity to be continued beyond a few maximal actions, the ATP processes must be initiated concomitantly with the onset of exercise, since the quantity of ATP stored within the muscle is extremely limited. The proportion of ATP that is resynthesised via the ATP – creatine phosphate (CP) or phosphagen system, anaerobic glycolysis and/or aerobic glycolysis/lipolysis is dependent on the intensity and the duration of the activity performed (Figure 1).
The purpose of this laboratory is to illustrate the differential contributions and capacity of the various energy resynthesis systems during muscle activity of varying duration for your group.
Figure 1: Estimated differential contribution of the various ATP resynthesis systems to total energy output during muscle activity of 10 seconds, 30 seconds and 90 seconds duration.
Apparatus
Handout, Monark cycle ergometer, weights, graph paper, (pen, pencil, and ruler supplied by student).
Procedure
Record Participants – Stature……………………cm…. Mass………………………kg.
Suitable warm up is performed – Eg 5 min at 70-80 rpm.
Part A
Estimation of energy available during an “all out” cycle sprint of 5 seconds duration
The participant is positioned on the cycle ergometer. The saddle height is adjusted to ensure minimal knee flexion at the bottom of the pedal-throw. A frictional resistance of participant’s body mass multiplied by 0.065 (the pannier weighs 1 Kg) is placed on the pannier (this frictional resistance may not be matched optimally to the muscles involved but will be sufficient to illustrate the processes involved). The test administrator raises the pannier on the cycle ergometer just sufficiently to reduce frictional resistance to forward rotation of the flywheel. The test administrator instructs the participant to attain a pedalling rate of 70 rpm (rev min-1). This can be assessed using the digital readout on the cycle ergometer. On the test administrator’s command 3-2-1 GO, the pannier is smoothly released and the participant pedals as rapidly as possible and the number of complete pedal revolutions in 5 seconds is counted by two observers. After the 5-second period (timed by stopwatch), the test administrator commands STOP to signal the end of the test. Pedal revolutions will be used as an index of energy output in this experiment. Record the total number of pedal revolutions and revs sec-1 in table 1.
Part B
Estimation of energy available during an “all out” cycle sprint of 30 seconds duration
Following a suitable recovery period, (>120 seconds), the subject repeats the procedure outlined in Part A for an all out sprint of 30 seconds duration.
Record the number of pedal revolutions during each 5-second segment of the test, the total number of revolutions in 30 seconds and revs sec-1 in table 2.
Part C
Estimation of energy available during a sustained cycle of 300 seconds duration
Following a suitable recovery period (>20 minutes), the participant repeats the procedure outlined in Part A for all out cycling for 300 seconds duration. The participant should attempt to complete as many pedal revolutions as possible during the time period and should start pedalling at 70 rev min-1 and then adjust the pedalling rate to suit the all out nature of the extended duration effort >60 rev•min-1. The test may be terminated prior to the 300 seconds if the participant is unable to maintain a pedalling rate above 50•rev•min-1, but encourage them to maintain >60 rev•min-1, thus, allowing a fluctuation of 10 rev•min-1. Record the number of pedal revolutions during each 30-second segment of the test, the total number of revolutions in 300 seconds and revs sec-1 in table 3.
Tasks
Calculate your group responses and enter into the tables 1, 2 or 3 as appropriate.
Calculate class mean responses for the data collected and enter into the tables 4, 5 & 6 as appropriate.
Plot bar charts of revs s-1 on the y-axis versus 5-second, 30-second and 300-second conditions on the x-axis for class mean data and import in to the space below using appropriate figure legends.
Plot bar charts of revolutions during each 5-second segment versus time during the 30-second test for class mean data and import in to the space below using appropriate figure legends.
Plot bar charts of revolutions during each 30-second segment versus time during the 300-second test for class mean data and import in to the space below using appropriate figure legends.
Table 1
5 seconds Total Revs Revs s-1
Table 2
30
sec 0-5 sec 5-10 sec 10-15 sec 15-20 sec 20-25 sec 25-30 sec Total Revs Revs s-1
Table 3
300
sec 0-30
sec 30-60
sec 60-90
sec 90-120
sec 120-150 sec
150-180 sec 180-210 sec 210-240 sec 240-270 sec 270-300 sec Total Revs
Revs s-1
Table 4
5 seconds Total Revs Revs s-1
Table 5
30
sec 0-5 sec 5-10 sec 10-15 sec 15-20 sec 20-25 sec 25-30 sec Total Revs Revs s-1
Table 6
300
sec 0-30
sec 30-60
sec 60-90
sec 90-120
sec 120-150 sec
150-180 sec 180-210 sec 210-240 sec 240-270 sec 270-300 sec Total Revs
Revs s-1
Q1: Explain the physiological responses to the differences observed in pedal revolutions per second between the 3 tests (The final box in tables 4-6)? (Think about the use and interaction of the energy systems)!
Q2: What is the physiological explanation for the observed decline in the final 3 segments of the 30 second test (Tables 2 & 5)? (Think about Fatigue and how this might reduce power)!
references
Powers S K, Howley E H (2012). Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. McGraw-Hill (8th edition). Chapter 4.
McArdle W D, Katch F I & Katch V L (2009). Exercise Physiology. Nutrition, Energy And Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
APPENDIX
Presenting Tables, Figures and Statistics
In many of your assignments you will be required to produce experimental research findings. It is often an advantage to illustrate your results and findings of any research in the form of a Table or a Figure and the statistical finding.
Tables
A Table should be large enough to portray all the information as fully as possible. Lines should not be highlighted and only specific rows should be underlined, see examples (Tables 1 & 2). In a Table that represents group mean responses on a number of variables (Table 1), the variables should be represented in the first column. If a Table represents individual responses the first column will portray participant number (Table 2). The mean and standard deviation are expressed as mean ± SD. The Table legend must be placed above the table in bold and in chronological order of appearance in the assignment. Do not include raw data only data that you will discuss and critically evaluate. Leave all raw data and SPSS output to the appendix.
Table 1. Peak physiological responses to Arm Crank Ergometry (ACE) and Wheelchair Ergometry (WCE). No significant differences (P>0.05).
Variable Ergometer Mean SD
(l•min-¹)
ACE
WCE 2.05
1.76 0.42
0.27
HR (bts•min-¹)
ACE
WCE 173
167 7
9
peak(l•min-¹)
ACE
WCE 93.86
82.79 22.78
10.22
RER
ACE
WCE 1.14
1.14 0.17
0.06
Bla (mmol•l) 5 min post ACE
WCE 9.8
9.8 1.1
1.2
Always support the Table with a description of the results to aid the reader and clarify your findings.
Table 2. Physical characteristics of SCI participants.
Participant
Number Age
(years) Stature
(m) Body Mass
(kg) Years in sport
1 29 1.55 63 10
2
35 1.81 100 4
3 37 1.50 48 12
4 36 1.68 65 10
5 34 1.65 110 12
6 25 1.57 62 6
7 36 1.80 69 12
8 31 1.80 87 12
Mean 32 1.67 75 10
SD 4 0.11 20 3
Always support the Table with a description to aid the reader and clarify your findings.
Figures
Line graphs, bar charts, histograms, photographs or even maps should all be denoted as a Figure. If a figure is showing results in the form of a graph it must present the mean ± SD finding by use of standard deviation bars as portrayed in this line graph example (Fig 1). Label all axes and portray units of measurement using Standard International (SI) convention.
You can choose the medium that best suits the data; this might be a line graph, bar chart, histogram or even a pie chart. It must only be used to aid your description of trends and analyses rather than to fill space. If the same data is portrayed in a Table it should not be portrayed as a Figure. You need to choose whether you think a Table or Figure is the most informative to avoid duplication.
Figure legend must be placed below the figure in bold and in chronological order of appearance in the assignment.
Always support the Figure with a description to aid the reader and clarify your findings.
Figure 1. Changes in blood glucose concentrations before, during and after the one-hour test and twenty-minute performance test on the ACE for the CHO and PLA conditions. Values are group mean ± SD. * Illustrates significant differences between groups (P<0.05). Statistical Representation A capitalised P that is italicised should always represent the statistical finding. In most research significance (alpha) is accepted at P means greater than. A significant finding is P0.05. In many examples you might want to express the exact significant value because it is very close to the threshold eg P = 0.08; P>0.05.
When performing any type statistical test they also produce r, t and F values. Many journals insist that these are also represented in the results section. The School of Applied and Health Sciences leave this to your discretion. The minimum requirement is the P values or whether it is less or greater than the significant (alpha) level you set in your methodology.
WARNING – it is not appropriate to dump all of the SPSS information into a Table in the results, most of the figures mean nothing to the research finding and you might be asked to explain what they represent. Indeed, anything that appears in a table should be referred to within the descriptive text that supports it. Leave the SPSS printout in an appendix and refer the reader to it for original raw data output stored in the appendix.
When producing an experimental report or dissertation the simple rule applies: describe your findings in the results and interpret and critically evaluate them in relation to the literature in your discussion.
QUIRK THEORY” OR
THE UNIVERSAL PERVERSITY OF MATTER
1. LAW OF EXPERIMENT
1.1. First Law
In any field of scientific endeavour, anything that can go wrong will go wrong.
1.1.1. Things go wrong when you least expect them to.
1.1.2. Everything goes wrong at the same time.
1.1.3. If there is a possibility that several things could go wrong, the one that does will be the one that inflicts most damage.
1.1.4. Left to themselves, things always go from bad to worse.
1.1.5. Experiments should be reproducible; they should fail in the same way.
1.1.6. Nature always sides with the hidden flaw.
1.1.7. If everything seems to be going well, you have overlooked something.
1.2. Second Law
It is usually impractical to worry beforehand about interference; if you don’t have any, someone will supply it for you.
1.2.1. Information which necessitates a change in design will be conveyed to the designer after, and only after, the plans are complete.
1.2.2. In simple cases where it is clear which is the right way and which is the wrong way, choose the wrong way because this will expedite subsequent revisions.
1.2.3. The more innocuous a modification appears to be, the further will its influence extend and the more plans will have to be redrawn.
1.3. Third Law
In any collection of data, the figures that are are clearly correct and are beyond all need of checking, are the ones that contain the errors.
1.3.1. No one you ask for help will see the errors.
1.3.2. Any nagging intruder who stops by with unsought advice will immediately spot errors.
1.4. Fourth Law
If in any problem you find yourself doing a transfinite amount of work, the answer can probably be obtained by simple inspection.
For those who are new to this field, the following rules have been formulated which should be helpful.
2. RULES OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
2.1. Build no mechanism simply if a way can be found to make it complex and wonderful.
2.2. A record of data is useful; it indicates that you have been busy.
2.3. To study a subject, first understand it thoroughly.
2.4. Draw your curves; then plot your data.
2.5. Do not believe in luck; rely on it.
2.6. When writing a report, always leave room to add an explanation if it doesn’t work (the rule of the way out).
2.7. Use the most recent developments in the field of interpretation of experimental data.
2.7.1. Items such as Finagle’s Constant and the more subtle Bougerre Factor (pronounced “Bugger”) are loosely grouped in mathematics under constant variables or, if you prefer, variable constants.
2.7.2. Finagle’s Constant, a multiplier of the zero order term, may be characterised as changing the universe to fit the equation.
2.7.3. The Bougeurre Factor is characterised by changing the equation to fit the universe; it is also known as the “soothing” factor. Mathematically, this is somewhat similar to the damping factor, it reduces the subject under discussion to zero importance.
2.7.4 A combination of the two, the Diddle Coefficient, is characterised by the way it changes things so that the universe and equation appear to fit without requiring any alterations to either.
Note: from Quirk theory or the universal perversity of matter (1968), Illinois Technograph, Dec 59, Urbana, Illinois; Engineering Publication.
ACCURACY, PRECISION AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF DATA
There are fundamental concepts that impact on the process of measurement, which include the following terms. As an aid to your understanding, indicate their meaning and some notes of caution.
Accuracy:
Precision:
Graduation:
Calibration:
Reliability:
Objectivity:
Validity:
Reproducibility:
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire
(PAR-Q)
Name Gender
DOB Age Emergency No: Date
Regular exercise is associated with many health benefits, yet any change of activity may increase the risk of injury. For most people physical activity/participation in exercise testing should not pose any problem or hazard. PAR-Q has been designed to identify the small number of adults for whom physical activity might be inappropriate or those who should have medical advice concerning the type of activity most suitable for them.
Common sense is your best guide in answering these few questions. Please read them carefully and check the yes or no opposite the question if it applies to you.
YES NO
Has your doctor ever said you have heart trouble?
Have you suffered any pains in your heart and chest?
Do you often feel faint or have spells of severe dizziness?
Has a doctor ever said your blood pressure was too high?
Has your doctor ever told you that you have a bone or joint
problem such as arthritis that has been aggravated by exercise, or might be made worse with exercise?
Is there a good physical reason not mentioned here why you should not participate in this session even if you wanted to?
Are you over age 60 and not accustomed to vigorous
exercise?
If you answered YES to one or more questions…
if you have not recently done so, consult with your personal physician by telephone or in person before increasing your physical activity and/or taking a fitness test for which you have volunteered.
If you answered NO to all questions…
If you honestly answered no to all questions you can be reasonably positive that you can safely participate in this laboratory practical.
If your health changes so you then answer yes to any of the above questions, seek guidance from a physician.
INFORMED CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE IN AN EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY PRACTICAL
1. PURPOSE To undertake a laboratory practical exercise test.
2. PROCEDURES The procedures are outlined in your practical handout for today’s session. Ensure you read them carefully before you agree to participate.
3. BENEFITS Your participation will allow you and your peers to gain insightful knowledge and experience of exercise physiology first hand.
4 RISKS There are no risks, but the exercise is strenuous.
5. QUERIES The tutor will be pleased to answer any queries you might have concerning the test protocol.
6. WITHDRAW You are free at any time to withdraw consent and cease participation.
7. CONFIDENTIALITY Your identity will be strictly confidential and all data will be recorded anonymously and discarded at the end of the academic year.
8. CONSENT I ………………………………………………… have read and understood the information on this form, answered NO to all questions on the PAR_Q and have had all my questions answered to my satisfaction.
I therefore, agree to take part in the practical session.
Participant signature
Date
FINAL GRADES & TUTOR’S COMMENTS
PART 1:
Presentation and adherence to the guidelines (5)
Completed questions, graphs and data sheet(s) (15)
Practical chosen by the module leader for assessment
Presentation and referenced responses to questions for practical …… (30)
PART 2:
Presentation and adherence to the guidelines (5)
Completed questions, graphs and data sheet(s) (15)
Practical chosen by the module leader for assessment
Presentation and referenced responses to questions for practical …… (30)
Final Grade out of 100 worth 40% of Module
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